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Title: Direct Observation of Sink-Dependent Defect Evolution in Nanocrystalline Iron under Irradiation

Abstract

Crystal defects generated during irradiation can result in severe changes in morphology and an overall degradation of mechanical properties in a given material. Nanomaterials have been proposed as radiation damage tolerant materials, due to the hypothesis that defect density decreases with grain size refinement due to the increase in grain boundary surface area. The lower defect density should arise from grain boundary-point defect absorption and enhancement of interstitial-vacancy annihilation. In this study, low energy helium ion irradiation on free-standing iron thin films were performed at 573 K. Interstitial loops of a 0 /2 [111] Burgers vector were directly observed as a result of the displacement damage. Loop density trends with grain size demonstrated an increase in the nanocrystalline (<100 nm) regime, but scattered behavior in the transition from the nanocrystalline to the ultra-fine regime (100–500 nm). To examine the validity of such trends, loop density and area for different grains at various irradiation doses were compared and revealed efficient defect absorption in the nanocrystalline grain size regime, but loop coalescence in the ultra-fine grain size regime. Lastly, a relationship between the denuded zone formation, a measure of grain boundary absorption efficiency, grain size, grain boundary type and misorientation angle ismore » determined.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [2]
  1. Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science & Engineering; Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  2. Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science & Engineering
  3. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Department of Radiation Solid Interactions
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program; USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1431071
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-17-30505
Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-06NA25396; AC04-94AL85000; SC0008274
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Scientific Reports
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 7; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; 42 ENGINEERING

Citation Formats

El Atwani, Osman, Nathaniel, James, Leff, Asher C., Hattar, Khalid, and Taheri, MItra L.. Direct Observation of Sink-Dependent Defect Evolution in Nanocrystalline Iron under Irradiation. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-01744-x.
El Atwani, Osman, Nathaniel, James, Leff, Asher C., Hattar, Khalid, & Taheri, MItra L.. Direct Observation of Sink-Dependent Defect Evolution in Nanocrystalline Iron under Irradiation. United States. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-01744-x.
El Atwani, Osman, Nathaniel, James, Leff, Asher C., Hattar, Khalid, and Taheri, MItra L.. Fri . "Direct Observation of Sink-Dependent Defect Evolution in Nanocrystalline Iron under Irradiation". United States. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-01744-x. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1431071.
@article{osti_1431071,
title = {Direct Observation of Sink-Dependent Defect Evolution in Nanocrystalline Iron under Irradiation},
author = {El Atwani, Osman and Nathaniel, James and Leff, Asher C. and Hattar, Khalid and Taheri, MItra L.},
abstractNote = {Crystal defects generated during irradiation can result in severe changes in morphology and an overall degradation of mechanical properties in a given material. Nanomaterials have been proposed as radiation damage tolerant materials, due to the hypothesis that defect density decreases with grain size refinement due to the increase in grain boundary surface area. The lower defect density should arise from grain boundary-point defect absorption and enhancement of interstitial-vacancy annihilation. In this study, low energy helium ion irradiation on free-standing iron thin films were performed at 573 K. Interstitial loops of a 0 /2 [111] Burgers vector were directly observed as a result of the displacement damage. Loop density trends with grain size demonstrated an increase in the nanocrystalline (<100 nm) regime, but scattered behavior in the transition from the nanocrystalline to the ultra-fine regime (100–500 nm). To examine the validity of such trends, loop density and area for different grains at various irradiation doses were compared and revealed efficient defect absorption in the nanocrystalline grain size regime, but loop coalescence in the ultra-fine grain size regime. Lastly, a relationship between the denuded zone formation, a measure of grain boundary absorption efficiency, grain size, grain boundary type and misorientation angle is determined.},
doi = {10.1038/s41598-017-01744-x},
journal = {Scientific Reports},
number = 1,
volume = 7,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri May 12 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Fri May 12 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Journal Article:
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  • Grain boundaries are effective sinks for radiation-induced defects, ultimately impacting the radiation tolerance of nanocrystalline materials (dense materials with nanosized grains) against net defect accumulation. However, irradiation-induced grain growth leads to grain boundary area decrease, shortening potential benefits of nanostructures. A possible approach to mitigate this is the introduction of dopants to target a decrease in grain boundary mobility or a reduction in grain boundary energy to eliminate driving forces for grain growth (using similar strategies as to control thermal growth). Here, in this study, we tested this concept in nanocrystalline zirconia doped with lanthanum. Although the dopant is observedmore » to segregate to the grain boundaries, causing grain boundary energy decrease and promoting dragging forces for thermally activated boundary movement, irradiation induced grain growth could not be avoided under heavy ion irradiation, suggesting a different growth mechanism as compared to thermal growth. Furthermore, it is apparent that reducing the grain boundary energy reduced the effectiveness of the grain boundary as sinks, and the number of defects in the doped material is higher than in undoped (La-free) YSZ.« less
  • We report that energetic ions have been widely used to evaluate the irradiation tolerance of structural materials for nuclear power applications and to modify material properties. It is important to understand the defect production, annihilation and migration mechanisms during and after collision cascades. In this study, single crystalline pure nickel metal and single-phase concentrated solid solution alloys of 50%Ni50%Co (NiCo) and 50%Ni50%Fe (NiFe) without apparent preexisting defect sinks were employed to study defect dynamics under ion irradiation. Both cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy characterization (TEM) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry channeling (RBS-C) spectra show that the range of radiation-induced defect clusters farmore » exceed the theoretically predicted depth in all materials after high-dose irradiation. Defects in nickel migrate faster than in NiCo and NiFe. Both vacancy-type stacking fault tetrahedra (SFT) and interstitial loops coexist in the same region, which is consistent with molecular dynamics simulations. Kinetic activation relaxation technique (k-ART) simulations for nickel showed that small vacancy clusters, such as di-vacancies and tri-vacancies, created by collision cascades are highly mobile, even at room temperature. The slower migration of defects in the alloy along with more localized energy dissipation of the displacement cascade may lead to enhanced radiation tolerance.« less
  • Understanding energy dissipation processes in electronic/atomic subsystems and subsequent non-equilibrium defect evolution is a long-standing challenge in materials science. In the intermediate energy regime, energetic particles simultaneously deposit a significant amount of energy to both electronic and atomic subsystems of silicon carbide (SiC). Here we show that defect evolution in SiC closely depends on the electronic-to-nuclear energy loss ratio (S e/S n), nuclear stopping powers ( dE/dx nucl), electronic stopping powers ( dE/dx ele), and the temporal and spatial coupling of electronic and atomic subsystem for energy dissipation. The integrated experiments and simulations reveal that: (1) increasing S e/S nmore » slows damage accumulation; (2) the transient temperatures during the ionization-induced thermal spike increase with dE/dx ele, which causes efficient damage annealing along the ion trajectory; and (3) for more condensed displacement damage within the thermal spike, damage production is suppressed due to the coupled electronic and atomic dynamics. Ionization effects are expected to be more significant in materials with covalent/ionic bonding involving predominantly well-localized electrons. Here, insights into the complex electronic and atomic correlations may pave the way to better control and predict SiC response to extreme energy deposition« less