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Title: First Simulations of Designing Stratospheric Sulfate Aerosol Geoengineering to Meet Multiple Simultaneous Climate Objectives: DESIGNING STRATOSPHERIC GEOENGINEERING

Abstract

We describe the first simulations of stratospheric sulfate aerosol geoengineering using multiple injection locations to meet multiple simultaneous surface temperature objectives. Simulations were performed using CESM1(WACCM), a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model with fully interactive stratospheric chemistry, dynamics (including an internally generated quasi-biennial oscillation), and a sophisticated treatment of sulfate aerosol formation, microphysical growth, and deposition. The objectives are defined as maintaining three temperature features at their 2020 levels against a background of the RCP8.5 scenario over the period 2020-2099. These objectives are met using a feedback mechanism in which the rate of sulfur dioxide injection at each of the four locations is adjusted independently every year of simulation. Even in the presence of uncertainties, nonlinearities, and variability, the objectives are met, predominantly by SO2 injection at 30°N and 30°S. By the last year of simulation, the feedback algorithm calls for a total injection rate of 51 Tg SO2 per year. The injections are not in the tropics, which results in a greater degree of linearity of the surface climate response with injection amount than has been found in many previous studies using injection at the equator. Because the objectives are defined in terms of annual mean temperature, the requiredmore » geeongineering results in "overcooling" during summer and "undercooling" during winter. The hydrological cycle is also suppressed as compared to the reference values corresponding to the year 2020. The demonstration we describe in this study is an important step toward understanding what geoengineering can do and what it cannot do.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [3]
  1. Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA
  2. Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca NY USA; Department of Computing and Mathematical Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena CA USA
  3. Atmospheric Chemistry, Observations, and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder CO USA
  4. Climate and Global Dynamics Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder CO USA
  5. Atmospheric Chemistry, Observations, and Modeling Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder CO USA; Climate and Global Dynamics Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder CO USA
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1430438
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-124386
Journal ID: ISSN 2169-897X; 453040135
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres; Journal Volume: 122; Journal Issue: 23
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Kravitz, Ben, MacMartin, Douglas G., Mills, Michael J., Richter, Jadwiga H., Tilmes, Simone, Lamarque, Jean-Francois, Tribbia, Joseph J., and Vitt, Francis. First Simulations of Designing Stratospheric Sulfate Aerosol Geoengineering to Meet Multiple Simultaneous Climate Objectives: DESIGNING STRATOSPHERIC GEOENGINEERING. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1002/2017JD026874.
Kravitz, Ben, MacMartin, Douglas G., Mills, Michael J., Richter, Jadwiga H., Tilmes, Simone, Lamarque, Jean-Francois, Tribbia, Joseph J., & Vitt, Francis. First Simulations of Designing Stratospheric Sulfate Aerosol Geoengineering to Meet Multiple Simultaneous Climate Objectives: DESIGNING STRATOSPHERIC GEOENGINEERING. United States. doi:10.1002/2017JD026874.
Kravitz, Ben, MacMartin, Douglas G., Mills, Michael J., Richter, Jadwiga H., Tilmes, Simone, Lamarque, Jean-Francois, Tribbia, Joseph J., and Vitt, Francis. Thu . "First Simulations of Designing Stratospheric Sulfate Aerosol Geoengineering to Meet Multiple Simultaneous Climate Objectives: DESIGNING STRATOSPHERIC GEOENGINEERING". United States. doi:10.1002/2017JD026874.
@article{osti_1430438,
title = {First Simulations of Designing Stratospheric Sulfate Aerosol Geoengineering to Meet Multiple Simultaneous Climate Objectives: DESIGNING STRATOSPHERIC GEOENGINEERING},
author = {Kravitz, Ben and MacMartin, Douglas G. and Mills, Michael J. and Richter, Jadwiga H. and Tilmes, Simone and Lamarque, Jean-Francois and Tribbia, Joseph J. and Vitt, Francis},
abstractNote = {We describe the first simulations of stratospheric sulfate aerosol geoengineering using multiple injection locations to meet multiple simultaneous surface temperature objectives. Simulations were performed using CESM1(WACCM), a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model with fully interactive stratospheric chemistry, dynamics (including an internally generated quasi-biennial oscillation), and a sophisticated treatment of sulfate aerosol formation, microphysical growth, and deposition. The objectives are defined as maintaining three temperature features at their 2020 levels against a background of the RCP8.5 scenario over the period 2020-2099. These objectives are met using a feedback mechanism in which the rate of sulfur dioxide injection at each of the four locations is adjusted independently every year of simulation. Even in the presence of uncertainties, nonlinearities, and variability, the objectives are met, predominantly by SO2 injection at 30°N and 30°S. By the last year of simulation, the feedback algorithm calls for a total injection rate of 51 Tg SO2 per year. The injections are not in the tropics, which results in a greater degree of linearity of the surface climate response with injection amount than has been found in many previous studies using injection at the equator. Because the objectives are defined in terms of annual mean temperature, the required geeongineering results in "overcooling" during summer and "undercooling" during winter. The hydrological cycle is also suppressed as compared to the reference values corresponding to the year 2020. The demonstration we describe in this study is an important step toward understanding what geoengineering can do and what it cannot do.},
doi = {10.1002/2017JD026874},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres},
number = 23,
volume = 122,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Dec 07 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Thu Dec 07 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}