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Title: In Situ Evaluation of Calcium Phosphate Nucleation Kinetics and Pathways during Intra- and Extrafibrillar Mineralization of Collagen Matrices

Abstract

Calcium phosphate (CaP) nanocrystals nucleate and grow in intrafibrillar and/or extrafibrillar spaces of collagen fibrils during the mineralization of bones and teeth. Little is known about the early stages of CaP nucleation and distribution in fibrillar matrices, despite their significant influence on the physical and chemical structures of tissue-level constructs. Using in situ small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), we examined the nucleation and growth of CaP within collagen matrices and elucidated how a nucleation inhibitor, polyaspartic acid (pAsp), governs mineralization kinetics and pathways at multiple length scales. In situ SAXS analysis clearly revealed that nucleation sites, kinetically-controlled by the nucleation inhibitor, determined the pathways of CaP morphological transformation. Mineralization with pAsp led to intrafibrillar CaP plates with a spatial distribution gradient through the depth of the matrix. Mineralization without pAsp led initially to spherical aggregates of CaP in the entire extrafibrillar spaces. With time, the spherical aggregates transformed into plates at the outermost surface of the collagen matrix, preventing intrafibrillar mineralization inside. The results illuminate mineral nucleation kinetics and real-time nanoparticle distributions within organic matrices in solutions containing body fluid components. Because the macroscale mechanical properties of collagen matrices depend on their mineral content, phase, and arrangement at the nanoscale,more » this study contributes to better design and fabrication of biomaterials for regenerative medicine.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [1]
  1. Department of Energy, Environmental &, Chemical Engineering, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130, United States
  2. X-ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States
  3. Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032-3072, United States
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); National Institutes of Health (NIH)
OSTI Identifier:
1429899
DOE Contract Number:
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Crystal Growth and Design; Journal Volume: 16; Journal Issue: 9
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Kim, Doyoon, Lee, Byeongdu, Thomopoulos, Stavros, and Jun, Young-Shin. In Situ Evaluation of Calcium Phosphate Nucleation Kinetics and Pathways during Intra- and Extrafibrillar Mineralization of Collagen Matrices. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1021/acs.cgd.6b00864.
Kim, Doyoon, Lee, Byeongdu, Thomopoulos, Stavros, & Jun, Young-Shin. In Situ Evaluation of Calcium Phosphate Nucleation Kinetics and Pathways during Intra- and Extrafibrillar Mineralization of Collagen Matrices. United States. doi:10.1021/acs.cgd.6b00864.
Kim, Doyoon, Lee, Byeongdu, Thomopoulos, Stavros, and Jun, Young-Shin. Thu . "In Situ Evaluation of Calcium Phosphate Nucleation Kinetics and Pathways during Intra- and Extrafibrillar Mineralization of Collagen Matrices". United States. doi:10.1021/acs.cgd.6b00864.
@article{osti_1429899,
title = {In Situ Evaluation of Calcium Phosphate Nucleation Kinetics and Pathways during Intra- and Extrafibrillar Mineralization of Collagen Matrices},
author = {Kim, Doyoon and Lee, Byeongdu and Thomopoulos, Stavros and Jun, Young-Shin},
abstractNote = {Calcium phosphate (CaP) nanocrystals nucleate and grow in intrafibrillar and/or extrafibrillar spaces of collagen fibrils during the mineralization of bones and teeth. Little is known about the early stages of CaP nucleation and distribution in fibrillar matrices, despite their significant influence on the physical and chemical structures of tissue-level constructs. Using in situ small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), we examined the nucleation and growth of CaP within collagen matrices and elucidated how a nucleation inhibitor, polyaspartic acid (pAsp), governs mineralization kinetics and pathways at multiple length scales. In situ SAXS analysis clearly revealed that nucleation sites, kinetically-controlled by the nucleation inhibitor, determined the pathways of CaP morphological transformation. Mineralization with pAsp led to intrafibrillar CaP plates with a spatial distribution gradient through the depth of the matrix. Mineralization without pAsp led initially to spherical aggregates of CaP in the entire extrafibrillar spaces. With time, the spherical aggregates transformed into plates at the outermost surface of the collagen matrix, preventing intrafibrillar mineralization inside. The results illuminate mineral nucleation kinetics and real-time nanoparticle distributions within organic matrices in solutions containing body fluid components. Because the macroscale mechanical properties of collagen matrices depend on their mineral content, phase, and arrangement at the nanoscale, this study contributes to better design and fabrication of biomaterials for regenerative medicine.},
doi = {10.1021/acs.cgd.6b00864},
journal = {Crystal Growth and Design},
number = 9,
volume = 16,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Aug 04 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Thu Aug 04 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • In vertebrates, insufficient availability of calcium and inorganic phosphate ions in extracellular fluids leads to loss of bone density and neuronal hyper-excitability. To counteract this problem, calcium ions are usually present at high concentrations throughout bodily fluids—at concentrations exceeding the saturation point. This condition leads to the opposite situation where unwanted mineral sedimentation may occur. Remarkably, ectopic or out-of-place sedimentation into soft tissues is rare, in spite of the thermodynamic driving factors. This fortunate fact is due to the presence of auto-regulatory proteins that are found in abundance in bodily fluids. Yet, many important inflammatory disorders such as atherosclerosis andmore » osteoarthritis are associated with this undesired calcification. Hence, it is important to gain an understanding of the regulatory process and the conditions under which it can go awry. In this manuscript, we extend mean-field continuum classical nucleation theory of the growth of clusters to encompass surface shielding. We use this formulation to study the regulation of sedimentation of calcium phosphate salts in biological tissues through the mechanism of post-nuclear shielding of nascent mineral particles by binding proteins. We develop a mathematical description of this phenomenon using a countable system of hyperbolic partial differential equations. A critical concentration of regulatory protein is identified as a function of the physical parameters that describe the system.« less
  • Identification of crystal nucleation and growth pathways is of fundamental importance for synthesis of functional materials, which requires control over size, orientation, polymorph, and hierarchical structure, often in the presence of additives used to tune the energy landscape defining these pathways. Furthermore we summarize the recent progress in application of in situ TEM and AFM techniques to monitor or even tune the pathway of crystal nucleation and growth.
  • Mineralization of collagen is critical for the mechanical functions of bones and teeth. Calcium phosphate nucleation in collagenous structures follows distinctly different patterns in highly confined gap regions (nanoscale confinement) than in less confined extrafibrillar spaces (microscale confinement). Although the mechanism(s) driving these differences are still largely unknown, differences in the free energy for nucleation may explain these two mineralization behaviors. Here, we report on experimentally obtained nucleation energy barriers to intra- and extrafibrillar mineralization, using in situ X-ray scattering observations and classical nucleation theory. Polyaspartic acid, an extrafibrillar nucleation inhibitor, increases interfacial energies between nuclei and mineralization fluids. Inmore » contrast, the confined gap spaces inside collagen fibrils lower the energy barrier by reducing the reactive surface area of nuclei, decreasing the surface energy penalty. The confined gap geometry, therefore, guides the two-dimensional morphology and structure of bioapatite and changes the nucleation pathway by reducing the total energy barrier.« less
  • Ion exchange is a ubiquitous phenomenon central to wide industrial applications, ranging from traditional (bio)chemical separation to the emerging chimie douce synthesis of materials for batteries and other energy applications. The exchange process is complex, involving substitution and transport of different ions under non-equilibrium conditions, and thus difficult to probe, leaving a gap in mechanistic understanding of kinetic exchange pathways toward final products. Herein, we report in situ tracking kinetic pathways of Li +/Na + substitution during solvothermal ion-exchange synthesis of Li xNa 1.5-xVOPO 4F 0.5 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1.5), a promising multi-Li polyanionic cathode for batteries. The real-timemore » observation, corroborated by first-principles calculations, reveals a selective replacement of Na + by Li +, leading to peculiar Na +/Li +/vacancy orderings in the intermediates. Contradicting the traditional belief of facile topotactic substitution via solid solution reaction, an abrupt two-phase transformation occurs and predominantly governs the kinetics of ion exchange and transport in the 1D polyanionic framework, consequently leading to significant difference of Li stoichiometry and electrochemical properties in the exchanged products. The findings may help to pave the way for rational design of ion exchange synthesis for making new materials.« less
  • Ion exchange is a ubiquitous phenomenon central to wide industrial applications, ranging from traditional (bio)chemical separation to the emerging chimie douce synthesis of materials for batteries and other energy applications. The exchange process is complex, involving substitution and transport of different ions under non-equilibrium conditions, and thus difficult to probe, leaving a gap in mechanistic understanding of kinetic exchange pathways toward final products. Herein, we report in situ tracking kinetic pathways of Li +/Na + substitution during solvothermal ion-exchange synthesis of Li xNa 1.5-xVOPO 4F 0.5 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1.5), a promising multi-Li polyanionic cathode for batteries. The real-timemore » observation, corroborated by first-principles calculations, reveals a selective replacement of Na + by Li +, leading to peculiar Na +/Li +/vacancy orderings in the intermediates. Contradicting the traditional belief of facile topotactic substitution via solid solution reaction, an abrupt two-phase transformation occurs and predominantly governs the kinetics of ion exchange and transport in the 1D polyanionic framework, consequently leading to significant difference of Li stoichiometry and electrochemical properties in the exchanged products. The findings may help to pave the way for rational design of ion exchange synthesis for making new materials.« less