skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Preconceptual design of a fluoride high temperature salt-cooled engineering demonstration reactor: Core design and safety analysis

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE)
OSTI Identifier:
1429507
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Annals of Nuclear Energy (Oxford)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Annals of Nuclear Energy (Oxford); Journal Volume: 103; Journal Issue: C; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2018-03-23 23:21:04; Journal ID: ISSN 0306-4549
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Brown, Nicholas R., Betzler, Benjamin R., Carbajo, Juan J., Wysocki, Aaron J., Greenwood, M. Scott, Gentry, Cole, and Qualls, A. Louis. Preconceptual design of a fluoride high temperature salt-cooled engineering demonstration reactor: Core design and safety analysis. United Kingdom: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.anucene.2017.01.003.
Brown, Nicholas R., Betzler, Benjamin R., Carbajo, Juan J., Wysocki, Aaron J., Greenwood, M. Scott, Gentry, Cole, & Qualls, A. Louis. Preconceptual design of a fluoride high temperature salt-cooled engineering demonstration reactor: Core design and safety analysis. United Kingdom. doi:10.1016/j.anucene.2017.01.003.
Brown, Nicholas R., Betzler, Benjamin R., Carbajo, Juan J., Wysocki, Aaron J., Greenwood, M. Scott, Gentry, Cole, and Qualls, A. Louis. Mon . "Preconceptual design of a fluoride high temperature salt-cooled engineering demonstration reactor: Core design and safety analysis". United Kingdom. doi:10.1016/j.anucene.2017.01.003.
@article{osti_1429507,
title = {Preconceptual design of a fluoride high temperature salt-cooled engineering demonstration reactor: Core design and safety analysis},
author = {Brown, Nicholas R. and Betzler, Benjamin R. and Carbajo, Juan J. and Wysocki, Aaron J. and Greenwood, M. Scott and Gentry, Cole and Qualls, A. Louis},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1016/j.anucene.2017.01.003},
journal = {Annals of Nuclear Energy (Oxford)},
number = C,
volume = 103,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {Mon May 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Mon May 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1016/j.anucene.2017.01.003

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 1work
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:
  • Engineering demonstration reactors are nuclear reactors built to establish proof of concept for technology options that have never been built. Examples of engineering demonstration reactors include Peach Bottom 1 for high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) and Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) for sodium-cooled fast reactors. Historically, engineering demonstrations have played a vital role in advancing the technology readiness level of reactor technologies. Our paper details a preconceptual design for a fluoride salt-cooled engineering demonstration reactor. The fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR) demonstration reactor (DR) is a concept for a salt-cooled reactor with 100 megawatts of thermal output (MWt). It would usemore » tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel within prismatic graphite blocks. FLiBe (2 7LiF-BeF2) is the reference primary coolant. The FHR DR is designed to be small, simple, and affordable. Development of the FHR DR is a necessary intermediate step to enable near-term commercial FHRs. The design philosophy of the FHR DR was focused on safety, near-term deployment, and flexibility. Lower risk technologies are purposely included in the initial FHR DR design to ensure that the reactor can be built, licensed, and operated as an engineering demonstration with minimal risk and cost. These technologies include TRISO particle fuel, replaceable core structures, and consistent structural material selection for core structures and the primary and intermediate loops, and tube-and-shell primary-to-intermediate heat exchangers. Important capabilities to be demonstrated by building and operating the FHR DR include fabrication and operation of high temperature reactors; heat exchanger performance (including passive decay heat removal); pump performance; and reactivity control; salt chemistry control to maximize vessel life; tritium management; core design methodologies; salt procurement, handling, maintenance and ultimate disposal. It is recognized that non-nuclear separate and integral test efforts (e.g., heated salt loops or loops using simulant fluids) are necessary to develop the technologies that will be demonstrated in the FHR DR.« less
  • Fluoride salt-cooled high temperature reactors (FHRs) are a promising reactor technology option with significant knowledge gaps to implementation. One potential approach to address those technology gaps is via a small-scale demonstration reactor with the goal of increasing the technology readiness level (TRL) of the overall system for the longer term. The objective of this paper is to outline a notional concept for such a system, and to address how the proposed concept would advance the TRL of FHR concepts. Development of the proposed FHR Demonstration Reactor (DR) will enable commercial FHR deployment through disruptive and rapid technology development and demonstration.more » The FHR DR will close remaining gaps to commercial viability. Lower risk technologies are included in the initial FHR DR design to ensure that the reactor can be built, licensed, and operated within an acceptable budget and schedule. Important capabilities that will be demonstrated by building and operating the FHR DR include core design methodologies; fabrication and operation of high temperature reactors; salt procurement, handling, maintenance, and ultimate disposal; salt chemistry control to maximize vessel life; tritium management; heat exchanger performance; pump performance; and reactivity control. The FHR DR is considered part of a broader set of FHR technology development and demonstration efforts, some of which are already underway. Nonreactor test efforts (e.g., heated salt loops or loops using simulant fluids) can demonstrate many technologies necessary for commercial deployment of FHRs. The FHR DR, however, fulfills a crucial role in FHR technology development by advancing the technical maturity and readiness level of the system as a whole.« less
  • Development of the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor (FHR) Demonstration Reactor (DR) is a necessary intermediate step to enable commercial FHR deployment through disruptive and rapid technology development and demonstration. The FHR DR will utilize known, mature technology to close remaining gaps to commercial viability. Lower risk technologies are included in the initial FHR DR design to ensure that the reactor can be built, licensed, and operated within an acceptable budget and schedule. These technologies include tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel, replaceable core structural material, the use of that same material for the primary and intermediate loops, and tube-and-shell heat exchangers. Thismore » report provides an update on the development of the FHR DR. At this writing, the core neutronics and thermal hydraulics have been developed and analyzed. The mechanical design details are still under development and are described to their current level of fidelity. It is anticipated that the FHR DR can be operational within 10 years because of the use of low-risk, near-term technology options.« less
  • The fluoride salt-cooled high-temperature reactor (FHR) demonstration reactor (DR) is a concept for a salt-cooled reactor with 100 megawatts of thermal output (MWt). It would use tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel within prismatic graphite blocks. FLiBe (2 LiF-BeF 2) is the reference primary coolant. The FHR DR is designed to be small, simple, and affordable. Development of the FHR DR is a necessary intermediate step to enable near-term commercial FHRs. Lower risk technologies are purposely included in the initial FHR DR design to ensure that the reactor can be built, licensed, and operated within an acceptable budget and schedule. These technologiesmore » include TRISO particle fuel, replaceable core structural material, the use of that same material for the primary and intermediate loops, and tube-and-shell primary-to-intermediate heat exchangers. Several preconceptual and conceptual design efforts that have been conducted on FHR concepts bear a significant influence on the FHR DR design. Specific designs include the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) advanced high-temperature reactor (AHTR) with 3400/1500 MWt/megawatts of electric output (MWe), as well as a 125 MWt small modular AHTR (SmAHTR) from ORNL. Other important examples are the Mk1 pebble bed FHR (PB-FHR) concept from the University of California, Berkeley (UCB), and an FHR test reactor design developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The MIT FHR test reactor is based on a prismatic fuel platform and is directly relevant to the present FHR DR design effort. These FHR concepts are based on reasonable assumptions for credible commercial prototypes. The FHR DR concept also directly benefits from the operating experience of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE), as well as the detailed design efforts for a large molten salt reactor concept and its breeder variant, the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor. The FHR DR technology is most representative of the 3400 MWt AHTR concept, and it will demonstrate key operational features of that design. The FHR DR will be closely scaled to the SmAHTR concept in power and flows, so any technologies demonstrated will be directly applicable to a reactor concept of that size. The FHR DR is not a commercial prototype design, but rather a DR that serves a cost and risk mitigation function for a later commercial prototype. It is expected to have a limited operational lifetime compared to a commercial plant. It is designed to be a low-cost reactor compared to more mature advanced prototype DRs. A primary reason to build the FHR DR is to learn about salt reactor technologies and demonstrate solutions to remaining technical gaps.« less