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Title: NEXT GENERATION THREE-WAY CATALYSTS FOR FUTURE, HIGHLY EFFICIENT GASOLINE ENGINES

Abstract

Ford Motor Company, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the University of Michigan completed a 3.25 year project on exhaust catalysts for gasoline vehicles that exhibit higher activity at lower temperatures down to 150°C. Ford has successfully used catalysts on cars and trucks to control emissions for over forty years. Changes in gasoline engine technology have allowed the use of “high tech” three-way catalysts (TWCs) to simultaneously control HC (hydrocarbons), CO (carbon monoxide), and NOx (nitrogen oxides) at nearly 100% efficiency. Excess fueling is used upon engine start to heat the catalyst up to its full operating temperature of greater than 350°C, lowering fuel economy and creating particulate matter. It was desirable to develop new catalysts for lower operating temperatures that may occur with future, more efficient gasoline powered vehicles, while still being durable to 150,000 mi with peak temperatures of 960°C. The work included laboratory preparation, aging, and poisoning of catalyst materials, activity tests, and chemical analyses. The objective of this project was to demonstrate progress toward the USDRIVE goal of achieving durable 90% conversion (T90) of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) at 150°C. The project partners focused on several supported metal catalyst structures tomore » promote lower light-off temperatures, enhance metal-support interaction, and improve durability. The raw materials (oxides of aluminum, cerium, silicon, titanium, and zirconium) were not new, but were used in novel ways. Palladium (Pd) or rhodium (Rh) were supported either on layered metal oxide supports, on nanoparticles, or used in various core@shell configurations. Catalyst materials were aged hydrothermally to a simulated high mileage. The catalyst formulation with the lowest durable light-off was 0.5 wt% Rh supported on alumina with an overlayer of either Ti or Zr. The temperatures for 90% conversion were up to 128°C lower than those of a commercial Pd three-way catalyst that had > 3x metal loading of the new Rh catalyst. An additional material made of Pd supported on nanoparticles of ceria-zirconia (CZO) was also considered; the aged T90s were up to 40°C lower than the commercial catalyst, at similar metal loading. Further understanding of the catalyst architecture provided additional confidence to move forward with scale-up of 0.5 wt% Rh/Ti/Al2O3 to coated monolith laboratory cores for further evaluation. The team worked with Johnson Matthey to accomplish this, in addition to exploring manufacturability and potential costs. The overall benefit was estimated to be 10-15% lower NMOG and NOx tailpipe emissions on a cold start certification cycle.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Ford Scientific Research Lab., Dearborn, MI (United States)
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  3. University of Michigan
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Ford Motor Company
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1429343
Report Number(s):
DOE-FORD-6845-1
DOE Contract Number:  
EE0006845
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; automotive, emission control, three-way catalyst

Citation Formats

Lambert, Christine K., Toops, Todd, and Schwank, Johannes. NEXT GENERATION THREE-WAY CATALYSTS FOR FUTURE, HIGHLY EFFICIENT GASOLINE ENGINES. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.2172/1429343.
Lambert, Christine K., Toops, Todd, & Schwank, Johannes. NEXT GENERATION THREE-WAY CATALYSTS FOR FUTURE, HIGHLY EFFICIENT GASOLINE ENGINES. United States. doi:10.2172/1429343.
Lambert, Christine K., Toops, Todd, and Schwank, Johannes. Fri . "NEXT GENERATION THREE-WAY CATALYSTS FOR FUTURE, HIGHLY EFFICIENT GASOLINE ENGINES". United States. doi:10.2172/1429343. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1429343.
@article{osti_1429343,
title = {NEXT GENERATION THREE-WAY CATALYSTS FOR FUTURE, HIGHLY EFFICIENT GASOLINE ENGINES},
author = {Lambert, Christine K. and Toops, Todd and Schwank, Johannes},
abstractNote = {Ford Motor Company, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the University of Michigan completed a 3.25 year project on exhaust catalysts for gasoline vehicles that exhibit higher activity at lower temperatures down to 150°C. Ford has successfully used catalysts on cars and trucks to control emissions for over forty years. Changes in gasoline engine technology have allowed the use of “high tech” three-way catalysts (TWCs) to simultaneously control HC (hydrocarbons), CO (carbon monoxide), and NOx (nitrogen oxides) at nearly 100% efficiency. Excess fueling is used upon engine start to heat the catalyst up to its full operating temperature of greater than 350°C, lowering fuel economy and creating particulate matter. It was desirable to develop new catalysts for lower operating temperatures that may occur with future, more efficient gasoline powered vehicles, while still being durable to 150,000 mi with peak temperatures of 960°C. The work included laboratory preparation, aging, and poisoning of catalyst materials, activity tests, and chemical analyses. The objective of this project was to demonstrate progress toward the USDRIVE goal of achieving durable 90% conversion (T90) of hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) at 150°C. The project partners focused on several supported metal catalyst structures to promote lower light-off temperatures, enhance metal-support interaction, and improve durability. The raw materials (oxides of aluminum, cerium, silicon, titanium, and zirconium) were not new, but were used in novel ways. Palladium (Pd) or rhodium (Rh) were supported either on layered metal oxide supports, on nanoparticles, or used in various core@shell configurations. Catalyst materials were aged hydrothermally to a simulated high mileage. The catalyst formulation with the lowest durable light-off was 0.5 wt% Rh supported on alumina with an overlayer of either Ti or Zr. The temperatures for 90% conversion were up to 128°C lower than those of a commercial Pd three-way catalyst that had > 3x metal loading of the new Rh catalyst. An additional material made of Pd supported on nanoparticles of ceria-zirconia (CZO) was also considered; the aged T90s were up to 40°C lower than the commercial catalyst, at similar metal loading. Further understanding of the catalyst architecture provided additional confidence to move forward with scale-up of 0.5 wt% Rh/Ti/Al2O3 to coated monolith laboratory cores for further evaluation. The team worked with Johnson Matthey to accomplish this, in addition to exploring manufacturability and potential costs. The overall benefit was estimated to be 10-15% lower NMOG and NOx tailpipe emissions on a cold start certification cycle.},
doi = {10.2172/1429343},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {3}
}