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Title: Reduction of Nitrogen Oxide Emission for Lean-Burn Engine Technology Final Report CRADA No. TC-0315-92-C

Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
26-Energy Resources - General; 70-Propulsion Systems and Propellants

Citation Formats

Reynolds, J, and Royce, M. Reduction of Nitrogen Oxide Emission for Lean-Burn Engine Technology Final Report CRADA No. TC-0315-92-C. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.2172/1424679.
Reynolds, J, & Royce, M. Reduction of Nitrogen Oxide Emission for Lean-Burn Engine Technology Final Report CRADA No. TC-0315-92-C. United States. doi:10.2172/1424679.
Reynolds, J, and Royce, M. 2018. "Reduction of Nitrogen Oxide Emission for Lean-Burn Engine Technology Final Report CRADA No. TC-0315-92-C". United States. doi:10.2172/1424679.
title = {Reduction of Nitrogen Oxide Emission for Lean-Burn Engine Technology Final Report CRADA No. TC-0315-92-C},
author = {Reynolds, J and Royce, M},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.2172/1424679},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2018,
month = 2

Technical Report:

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  • Lean-burn engines offer the potential for significant fuel economy improvements in cars and trucks, perhaps the next great breakthrough in automotive technology that will enable greater savings in imported petroleum. The development of lean-burn engines, however, has been an elusive goal among automakers because of the emissions challenges associated with lead-burn engine technology. Presently, cars operate with sophisticated emissions control systems that require the engine's air-fuel ratio to be carefully controlled around the stoichiometric point (chemically correct mixture). Catalysts in these systems are called "three-way" catalysts because they can reduce hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions simultaneously, but onlymore » because of the tight control of the air-fuel ratio. The purpose of this cooperative effort is to develop advanced catalyst systems, materials, and necessary engine control algorithms for reducing NOX emissions in oxygen-rich automotive exhaust (as with lean-burn engine technology) to meet current and near-future mandated Clean Air Act standards. These developments will represent a breakthrough in both emission control technology and automobile efficiency. The total project is a joint effort among five national laboratories, together with US CAR. The role of Lockheed-Martin Energy Systems in the total project is two fold: characterization of catalyst performance through laboratory evaluations from bench-scale flow reactor tests to engine laboratory tests of full-scale prototype catalysts, and microstructural characterization of catalyst material before and after test stand and/or engine testing.« less
  • The industrial boiler market was surveyed to ascertain the population distributions of boilers that might be repowered by a gas-fired prime mover. In this repower scheme, the exhaust from a prime mover is used to fire an industrial boiler. A range of typical industrial boiler sizes (25, 50, and 100 MMBtu/hr) was chosen for a technical evaluation of the repowering concept. Potential prime movers were matched to candidate boilers, and performance, physical and cost data were collected on each. From these data, steam rate, temperature profiles, pressure drop, and boiler efficiency calculations were performed. Steam production and overall boiler efficiencymore » were shown to be maintained with acceptable pressure drops and excellent returns on investment with current gas and electricity price structures. An experimental pilot-scale system was shown to achieve 70 percent NOx reduction with acceptable levels of CO and unburned hydrocarbons. Boiler flame stability was shown with the vitiated flue gas down to an oxygen content of 14 percent.« less
  • The concept of engine emissions control by modifying intake combustion gas composition from that of ambient air using gas separation membranes has been developed during several programs undertaken at Argonne. These have led to the current program which is targeted at heavy-duty diesel truck engines. The specific objective is reduction of NO{sub x} emissions by the target engine to meet anticipated 2007 standards while extracting a maximum of 5 percent power loss and allowing implementation within commercial constraints of size, weight, and cost. This report includes a brief review of related past programs, describes work completed to date during themore » current program, and presents interim conclusions. Following a work schedule adjustment in August 2002 to accommodate problems in module procurement and data analysis, activities are now on schedule and planned work is expected to be completed in September, 2004. Currently, we believe that the stated program requirements for the target engine can be met, based upon extrapolation of the work completed. Planned project work is designed to experimentally confirm these projections and result in a specification for a module package that will meet program objectives.« less
  • This report presents the results of an economic evaluation produced as part of the Innovative Clean Coal Technology project, which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from utility boilers burning U.S. high-sulfur coal. The document includes a commercial-scale capital and O&M cost evaluation of SCR technology applied to a new facility, coal-fired boiler utilizing high-sulfur U.S. coal. The base case presented herein determines the total capital requirement, fixed and variable operating costs, and levelized costs for a new 250-MW pulverized coal utility boiler operating with a 60-percent NO{sub x} removal. Sensitivity evaluations are includedmore » to demonstrate the variation in cost due to changes in process variables and assumptions. This report also presents the results of a study completed by SCS to determine the cost and technical feasibility of retrofitting SCR technology to selected coal-fired generating units within the Southern electric system.« less
  • This report describes the development of bulk hydrous titanium oxide (HTO)- and silica-doped hydrous titanium oxide (HTO:Si)-supported Pt catalysts for lean-burn NOx catalyst applications. The effects of various preparation methods, including both anion and cation exchange, and specifically the effect of Na content on the performance of Pt/HTO:Si catalysts, were evaluated. Pt/HTO:Si catalysts with low Na content (< 0.5 wt.%) were found to be very active for NOx reduction in simulated lean-burn exhaust environments utilizing propylene as the major reductant species. The activity and performance of these low Na Pt/HTO:Si catalysts were comparable to supported Pt catalysts prepared using conventionalmore » oxide or zeolite supports. In ramp down temperature profile test conditions, Pt/HTO:Si catalysts with Na contents in the range of 3-5 wt.% showed a wide temperature window of appreciable NOx conversion relative to low Na Pt/HTO:Si catalysts. Full reactant species analysis using both ramp up and isothermal test conditions with the high Na Pt/HTO:Si catalysts, as well as diffuse reflectance FTIR studies, showed that this phenomenon was related to transient NOx storage effects associated with NaNO{sub 2}/NaNO{sub 3} formation. These nitrite/nitrate species were found to decompose and release NOx at temperatures above 300 C in the reaction environment (ramp up profile). A separate NOx uptake experiment at 275 C in NO/N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} showed that the Na phase was inefficiently utilized for NOx storage. Steady state tests showed that the effect of increased Na content was to delay NOx light-off and to decrease the maximum NOx conversion. Similar results were observed for high K Pt/HTO:Si catalysts, and the effects of high alkali content were found to be independent of the sample preparation technique. Catalyst characterization (BET surface area, H{sub 2} chemisorption, and transmission electron microscopy) was performed to elucidate differences between the HTO- and HTO:Si-supported Pt catalysts and conventional oxide- or zeolite-supported Pt catalysts.« less