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Title: New Approaches to Automotive Combustion Systems and Control of NOx Emissions Final Report CRADA No. TC-0399-92B

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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
26-Energy Resources - General; 78-Science and Technology

Citation Formats

Flynn, P F, Tahri, S E, and Westbrook, C K. New Approaches to Automotive Combustion Systems and Control of NOx Emissions Final Report CRADA No. TC-0399-92B. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.2172/1424638.
Flynn, P F, Tahri, S E, & Westbrook, C K. New Approaches to Automotive Combustion Systems and Control of NOx Emissions Final Report CRADA No. TC-0399-92B. United States. doi:10.2172/1424638.
Flynn, P F, Tahri, S E, and Westbrook, C K. 2018. "New Approaches to Automotive Combustion Systems and Control of NOx Emissions Final Report CRADA No. TC-0399-92B". United States. doi:10.2172/1424638.
title = {New Approaches to Automotive Combustion Systems and Control of NOx Emissions Final Report CRADA No. TC-0399-92B},
author = {Flynn, P F and Tahri, S E and Westbrook, C K},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.2172/1424638},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2018,
month = 2

Technical Report:

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  • DOE Proposal 93-MULT-162-Cl funded a Program consisting of two distinct but related projects which focused upon increasing fuel economy and lowering emissions which were two of the goals of the New Generation Vehicle Program. Project A addressed combustion modeling and experimental verification of the models for spark-ignited and compression-ignited engines. Project B applied advanced diagnostics to a production engine and its associated emission components. This report covers Project A only. Project A was divided into two phases each being conducted simultaneously over the course of the three-year CRADAs. The titles of the two phases and the principal industrial partners formore » each were: Development and Experimental Verification of Models for Homogeneous Charge Spark Ignited (SI) Engine (GMR), and Development and Experimental Verification of Models for Compression Ignited (CI) Engine (Cummins). These two phases were highly interrelated. Many of the model subprograms were used for both the SI engine model and the CI model. There was also a strong degree of commonality between the engines used. The single-cylinder SI engine at GMR was an optically accessible engine based on the Quad-Four. GMR provided the drawings of this engine to Sandia for them to build a duplicate version by the second year. (In the first year, the SI engine measurements at Sandia and GMR were completed in existing optical research engines.)« less
  • Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Babcock and Wilcox, a prominent U.S. boiler manufacturer, have collaborated under this CRADA to investigate the application of deterministic chaos theory to improve the performance of fossil fuel boilers. The types of boilers investigated were coal-fired fluidized beds and more conventional pulverized coal systems. The results of this investigation demonstrate that chaotic time series analysis of boiler signals (e.g., pressure, acoustic and/or optical signals) can be used to characterize the combustion dynamics with greater accuracy than is possible with conventional signal analysis. Further, it is expected that these new analysis techniques will lead to amore » new generation of boiler diagnostics and control technology that can make U.S. industry more competitive in the world boiler market. Babcock and Wilcox is initiating follow-on internal and external research to further develop the technology.« less
  • This is a 3-way CRADA project working together with Corning, Inc. and Hyundai Motor Co. (HMC). The project is to understand particulate emissions from gasoline direct-injection engines (GDI) and their physico-chemical properties. In addition, this project focuses on providing fundamental information about filtration and regeneration mechanisms occurring in gasoline particulate filter (GPF) systems. For the work, Corning provides most advanced filter substrates for GPF applications and HMC provides three-way catalyst (TWC) coating services of these filter by way of a catalyst coating company. Then, Argonne National Laboratory characterizes fundamental behaviors of filtration and regeneration processes as well as evaluated TWCmore » functionality for the coated filters. To examine aging impacts on TWC and GPF performance, the research team evaluates gaseous and particulate emissions as well as back-pressure increase with ash loading by using an engine-oil injection system to accelerate ash loading in TWC-coated GPFs.« less
  • The overall goal of this CRADA was the improvement of performance and/or development of alternate systems for conventional fuel, flex-fuel, and alternate fuel vehicles in order to meet stringent future emission standards. The objectives had three major thrusts: (1) the characterization of the structural and chemical evolution of the precious metals and washcoat during aging under bench flow reactor, engine dynamometer, and vehicle conditions; (2) the correlation of measured catalyst performance and degradation over time with details of microstructural changes under bench flow reactor and engine dynamometer conditions; and (3) the simulation and testing of an in-cylinder catalyst system tomore » determine the effect on emissions of a single-cylinder engine. Catalyst formulations for both gasoline and natural gas applications were studied. The emission testing and structural characterization were performed on alternate formulations and processing variables in order to evaluate the relative conversion efficiency, lifetime, and stability. The aging parameters were correlated with the evolving structure and properties of the tested catalytic converters. A major portion of the second thrust area was the construction and validation of both the bench flow reactor and engine dynamometer test facility and the identification of deactivation/regeneration mechanisms associated with alternative fuels relative to those for conventional fuel. A number of microstructural changes were identified that could contribute to the deactivation of the catalyst during aging. The stability of several catalyst formulations and alternate processing procedures relative to these microstructural changes and changes in conversion efficiency and lifetime were studied.« less
  • Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) and ORNL established this CRADA to improve heavy-duty engine efficiency with reduced emissions at relatively extreme operating regimes such has high EGR, low-load, and cold-start, with an emphasis on the application of advanced control strategies. The approach used in this collaborative effort was to include the application of novel analysis and modeling techniques developed from the application of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory. More specifically, analytical techniques derived from these theories were to used to detect, characterize, and control the combustion instabilities that are responsible for poor combustion performance and corresponding high emissions. The foundation ofmore » this CRADA was established based on ORNL expertise on the fundamentals of advanced combustion operation and experience with nonlinear dynamics and controls in combustion systems. The initial plan was all data generation would be performed at DDC with an agreed upon experimental plan formed by both organizations. While numerous experiments were performed at DDC and the data was exchanged with ORNL researchers, the team decided to transfer an engine to ORNL to allow more flexibility and data generation opportunities. A prototype DDC Series 60 with a common rail fuel system was selected and installed at ORNL. DDC and ORNL maintained a strong collaboration throughout much of this project. Direct funding from DOE ended in 2004 and DDC continued to fund at a reduced amount through 2007. This CRADA has not been funded in more recent years but has been maintained active in anticipation of restored funding. This CRADA has led to additional collaborations between DDC and ORNL. The objectives are to: (1) Explore and establish boundaries of high efficiency clean combustion (HECC) modes on a DDC heavy-duty diesel engine; (2) Improve fundamental understanding of combustion instabilities for use in the development of predictive controls and diagnostics; and (3) Develop and evaluate potential control strategies for enabling and/or expanding HECC operation on a multi-cylinder diesel engine.« less