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Title: Manufacture of High Performance Cryogenic Pressure Vessels Final Report CRADA No. TC02129

Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
26-Energy Resources - General

Citation Formats

Aceves, S M, and Clinkscales, W. Manufacture of High Performance Cryogenic Pressure Vessels Final Report CRADA No. TC02129. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.2172/1424630.
Aceves, S M, & Clinkscales, W. Manufacture of High Performance Cryogenic Pressure Vessels Final Report CRADA No. TC02129. United States. doi:10.2172/1424630.
Aceves, S M, and Clinkscales, W. 2018. "Manufacture of High Performance Cryogenic Pressure Vessels Final Report CRADA No. TC02129". United States. doi:10.2172/1424630.
title = {Manufacture of High Performance Cryogenic Pressure Vessels Final Report CRADA No. TC02129},
author = {Aceves, S M and Clinkscales, W},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.2172/1424630},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2018,
month = 1

Technical Report:

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  • The intent of the work is for RFMD and NREL to cooperate in the development of a commercially viable and high volume capable process to manufacture high performance photovoltaic cells, based on inverted metamorphic (IMM) GaAs technology. The successful execution of the agreement will result in the production of a PV cell using technology that is capable of conversion efficiency at par with the market at the time of release (reference 2009: 37-38%), using RFMD's production facilities. The CRADA work has been divided into three phases: (1) a foundation phase where the teams will demonstrate the manufacturing of a basicmore » PV cell at RFMD's production facilities; (2) a technology demonstration phase where the teams will demonstrate the manufacturing of prototype PV cells using IMM technology at RFMD's production facilities, and; (3) a production readiness phase where the teams will demonstrate the capability to manufacture PV cells using IMM technology with high yields, high reliability, high reproducibility and low cost.« less
  • This CRADA comprised a key component of the High Performance Storage System (HPSS) Project, a project directed toward creating a parallel data storage and access system capable of achieving data transfer rates in the 1 GB/sec range to both tape and disk. The HPSS has been under development through a group of CRADAs, involving IBM Government Systems together with Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Additional development support was provided by the NASA Langley Research Center and Cornell University. The key LMES component is the Storagemore » System Management (SSM) package, the software package that controls all storage and access activities and provides readily understandable and complete system information to an operator. This information includes storage and access activity in progress; the location, size, and character of all files; and warning and error messages, among others. As such, SSM must be accurately coordinated with all of the HPSS development components and must represent a synthesis of all.« less
  • The NO x Storage-Reduction (NSR, also known as lean-NO x trap – LNT), is based upon the concept of storing NO x as nitrates over storage components, typically barium species, during a lean-burn operation cycle and then reducing the stored nitrates to N 2 during fuel-rich conditions over a precious metal catalyst [1]. NO x Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), on the other hand, is accomplished by deliberately introducing reductant urea into the engine exhaust to reduce NO x with the aid of a Cu(Fe)/zeolite catalyst [2]. These two technologies have been recognized as the most promising approaches for meeting stringentmore » NO x emission standards for diesel vehicles within the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) 2007/2010 mandated limits. For NSR, problems arising from either or both thermal and SO 2 deactivation must be addressed to meet durability standards. For SCR, SO 2 deactivation is less of an issue, but hydrothermal deactivation of the zeolite catalysts must be addressed. With continuing R&D efforts in advanced powertrains, highly novel operating modes for internal combustion engines (ICEs) are being researched in order to meet the very stringent new demands for fuel efficiency (e.g., U.S. ‘‘CAFE’’ standards for average miles/gallon are scheduled to increase dramatically over the next 10–15 years). These new ICE engine operation modes, while highly fuel-efficient, result in much lower exhaust temperatures than current engines; temperatures so low that it is hard to imagine how the current catalytic emission control technologies will be able to function. For example, while steady-state operation of the NO x reduction technology at 150 °C may be required, current ‘‘light-off’’ temperatures for CHA-based zeolite catalysts are closer to 200 °C. Therefore, understanding low-temperature limitations in NO x reduction has become one of the most daunting challenges in R&D on new catalyst materials and processes that can effectively eliminate emissions at these quite low exhaust temperatures. This project has two clear focuses: (1) development of potassium-based high-temperature NSR materials, and studying their key causes of deactivation and methods of regeneration. By comparing results obtained on ‘Simple Model’ Pt-K/Al 2O 3 with ‘Enhanced Model’ Pt-K/ MgAlO x and Pt-K/TiO 2 materials, we have developed an understanding of the role of various additives on the deactivation and regeneration processes. Studies have also been performed on the real commercial samples being used in a Dodge Ram truck with a Cummins diesel emission control system. However, the results about these ‘commercial samples’ will not be covered in this report. Following a brief description of our experimental approach, we will present a few highlights from some of the work performed in this CRADA with more details about these results provided in publications/reports/presentations lists presented at the end of the report. (2) for the Cu and Fe/Chabazite SCR catalysts, since these are so newly developed and references from open literature and industry are nearly absent, our work started from zeolite synthesis and catalyst synthesis methodology development, before research on their low- and high-temperature performance, deactivation, regeneration, etc. was conducted. Again, most work reported here is based on our “model” catalysts synthesized in-house. Work done on the ‘commercial samples’ will not be covered in this report.« less
  • This report concerned the I. G. Farben method of producing thick-walled steel tubes by wrapping many layers of narrow steel bands around inner thin-walled steel tubes. An inner tube had to be highly alloyed to withstand corrosion at high temperatures and pressures, but the bands did not have to be so highly alloyed; this situation allowed a saving of scarce and expensive alloying metals. The inner tube was made with shallow helical grooves on the outer surface, and the bands were tempered at 800/sup 0/C and grooved in an interlocking fashion as they were wrapped helically around the inner tube.more » Since each layer of bands overlapped the layer below with an offset of about one-third the width of the band, each layer locked the layers below into place, so there was no need to weld anything but the beginning of each band. Flanges at the ends of a tube could even be wound on by the same method. The windings on a tube had enough elasticity to spread axial stress out evenly through the thickness of the wall, so a wound tube made with a given amount of material and a given inherent wall strength could hold more pressure than a comparable one-piece forged tube. In some cases, this fact allowed the inner tubes to be a bit weaker, and thus to be rolled and welded instead of forged. Even if this were not done, the wound tubes required for their construction much simpler and less expensive equipment, fewer men, and much less time, cost, and wasted material than did one-piece forged tubes. The heat-transfer coefficient for a wound tube was almost as good as that for a corresponding forged tube. Also, the windings were permeable to high-pressure gas, so no gas-release ports had to be built in to wound tubes. 9 photographs, 7 drawings, 2 graphs, 1 table.« less
  • This report is a summary of the results of activities of the particulate monitoring group in support of the METC/Shell CRADA 93-011. Online particulate monitoring began in August 1993 and ended in October 1994. The particulate monitoring group participated in six MGCR runs (No. 5 through No. 10). The instrument used in measuring the particle loadings (particle counts and size distribution) is the Particle Measuring Systems Classical Scattering Aerosol Spectrometer Probe High Temperature and High Pressure (PMS Model CSASP-100-HTHP). This PMS unit is rated to operate at temperatures up to 540{degree}C and gage pressures up to 2.07 MPa. Gas streammore » conditions, temperature at 540{degree}C, gage pressure at 2.93 MPa, and gas flowrate at 0.0157 SCM per second, precluded the direct measurement of particulate loadings in the gas stream with the PMS unit. A side stream was extracted from the gas stream after it came over to the MGCR, (Modular Gas Cleanup Rig), from the FBG, pressurized fluidized-bed gasifier, but before it entered the filter testing vessel. A sampling probe of 0.635 cm O.D. thin wall stainless steel tubing was used for extracting the sample gas isokinetically based on the expected flowrate. The sample gas stream was further split into two streams; one was directed to the PMS unit and the other to the alkali monitor unit.« less