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Title: Materials Dynamics

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  1. Los Alamos National Laboratory
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Los Alamos National Laboratory, Materials for the Future, materials dynamics

Citation Formats

Teter, David Fredrick, Pietrass, Tanja, and Kippen, Karen Elizabeth. Materials Dynamics. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.2172/1423991.
Teter, David Fredrick, Pietrass, Tanja, & Kippen, Karen Elizabeth. Materials Dynamics. United States. doi:10.2172/1423991.
Teter, David Fredrick, Pietrass, Tanja, and Kippen, Karen Elizabeth. 2018. "Materials Dynamics". United States. doi:10.2172/1423991.
title = {Materials Dynamics},
author = {Teter, David Fredrick and Pietrass, Tanja and Kippen, Karen Elizabeth},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.2172/1423991},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2018,
month = 3

Technical Report:

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  • We have carried out research to determine the dynamics of failure in complex geomaterials, specifically focusing on the role of defects, damage and asperities in the catastrophic failure processes (now popularly termed “Black Swan events”). We have examined fracture branching and flow processes using models for invasion percolation, focusing particularly on the dynamics of bursts in the branching process. We have achieved a fundamental understanding of the dynamics of nucleation in complex geomaterials, specifically in the presence of inhomogeneous structures.
  • This grant supported work on the response of crystals to external stress. Our primary work described how disordered structural materials break in two (statistical models of fracture in disordered materials), studied models of deformation bursts (avalanches) that mediate deformation on the microscale, and developed continuum dislocation dynamics models for plastic deformation (as when scooping ice cream bends a spoon, Fig. 9). Glass is brittle -- it breaks with almost atomically smooth fracture surfaces. Many metals are ductile -- when they break, the fracture surface is locally sheared and stretched, and it is this damage that makes them hard to break.more » Bone and seashells are made of brittle material, but they are strong because they are disordered -- lots of little cracks form as they are sheared and near the fracture surface, diluting the external force. We have studied materials like bone and seashells using simulations, mathematical tools, and statistical mechanics models from physics. In particular, we studied the extreme values of fracture strengths (how likely will a beam in a bridge break far below its design strength), and found that the traditional engineering tools could be improved greatly. We also studied fascinating crackling-noise precursors -- systems which formed microcracks of a broad range of sizes before they broke. Ductile metals under stress undergo irreversible plastic deformation -- the planes of atoms must slide across one another (through the motion of dislocations) to change the overall shape in response to the external force. Microscopically, the dislocations in crystals move in bursts of a broad range of sizes (termed 'avalanches' in the statistical mechanics community, whose motion is deemed 'crackling noise'). In this grant period, we resolved a longstanding mystery about the average shape of avalanches of fixed duration (using tools related to an emergent scale invariance), we developed the fundamental theory describing the shapes of avalanches and how they are affected by the edges of the microscope viewing window, we found that slow creep of dislocations can trigger an oscillating response explaining recent experiments, we explained avalanches under external voltage, and we have studied how avalanches in experiments on the microscale relate to deformation of large samples. Inside the crystals forming the metal, the dislocations arrange into mysterious cellular structures, usually ignored in theories of plasticity. Writing a natural continuum theory for dislocation dynamics, we found that it spontaneously formed walls -- much like models of traffic jams and sonic booms. These walls formed rather realistic cellular structures, which we examined in great detail -- our walls formed fractal structures with fascinating scaling properties, related to those found in turbulent fluids. We found, however, that the numerical and mathematical tools available to solve our equations were not flexible enough to incorporate materials-specific information, and our models did not show the dislocation avalanches seen experimentally. In the last year of this grant, we wrote an invited review article, explaining how plastic flow in metals shares features with other stressed materials, and how tools of statistical physics used in these other systems might be crucial for understanding plasticity.« less
  • The accomplished research has centered about the construction of new instrumentation for the investigation of transient high-energy materials and the exploration of how the chemistry of transient high-energy materials and the dynamics of these species respond to systematic variations in structure, environments, and experimental variables. Particular emphasis was given to reactions in microheterogeneous environments and interfaces provided by micelles, polymers and porous solids, using resonance Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, electron spin-resonance spectroscopy, optical absorption, and optical emission. The use of external magnetic fields on the reactivity of carbenes, of radical pairs, and of biradicals, and of adsorption ofmore » reactive intermediates at interfaces was explored as methods which may be capable of extending the lifetimes of these transient species.« less
  • We consider a model of shape memory material in which hierarchical twinning near the habit plane (austenite-martensite interface) is a new and crucial ingredient. The model includes (1) a triple-well potential ({phi} model) in local shear strain, (2) strain gradient terms up to second order in strain and fourth order in gradient, and (3) all symmetry allowed compositional fluctuation induced strain gradient terms. The last term favors hierarchy which enables communication between macroscopic (cm) and microscopic ({Angstrom}) regions essential for shape memory. Hierarchy also stabilizes between formation (critical pattern of twins). External stress or pressure (pattern) modulates the spacing ofmore » domain walls. Therefore the ``pattern`` is encoded in the modulated hierarchical variation of the depth and width of the twins. This hierarchy of length scales provides a hierarchy of time scales and thus the possibility of non-exponential decay. The four processes of the complete shape memory cycle -- write, record, erase and recall -- are explained within this model. Preliminary results based on 2D Langevin dynamics are shown for tweed and hierarchy formation.« less
  • Purpose was to study equilibrium particle and energy balance and heating mechanisms in electronegative rf discharges. Attention is given to formation of non-Maxwellian electron distributions and their effect on macroscopic parameters. Research includes theory, particle- in-cell simulation, and experimental investigations. Sheath heating theory and simulation results for electropositive plasmas are used as guide. The investigation was centered on, but not limited to, study of oxygen feedstock gas in capacitively and inductively coupled rf discharges.