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Title: Nanoscopy reveals surface-metallic black phosphorus

Abstract

Black phosphorus (BP) is an emerging two-dimensional material with intriguing physical properties. It is highly anisotropic and highly tunable by means of both the number of monolayers and surface doping. Here, we experimentally investigate and theoretically interpret the near-field properties of a-few-atomic-monolayer nanoflakes of BP. We discover near-field patterns of bright outside fringes and a high surface polarizability of nanofilm BP consistent with its surface-metallic, plasmonic behavior at mid-infrared frequencies <1176 cm -1. We conclude that these fringes are caused by the formation of a highly polarizable layer at the BP surface. This layer has a thickness of ~1 nm and exhibits plasmonic behavior. We estimate that it contains free carriers in a concentration of n≈1.1 × 10 20 cm -3. Surface plasmonic behavior is observed for 10–40 nm BP thicknesses but absent for a 4-nm BP thickness. This discovery opens up a new field of research and potential applications in nanoelectronics, plasmonics and optoelectronics.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [3];  [3];  [1]
  1. Georgia State Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States). Center for Nano-Optics. Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  2. Georgia State Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  3. Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Viterbi School of Engineering
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Georgia State Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States); Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); National Science Foundation (NSF); US Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR); Office of Naval Research (ONR) (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
1423792
Grant/Contract Number:  
FG02-01ER15213; SC0007043; FG02-07ER46376; 1553251; 1402906; FA9559-16-1-0172; N00014-13-1-0649
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Light, Science & Applications
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 2047-7538
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; nanophotonics and plasmonics; optical materials and structures

Citation Formats

Abate, Yohannes, Gamage, Sampath, Li, Zhen, Babicheva, Viktoriia, Javani, Mohammad H., Wang, Han, Cronin, Stephen B., and Stockman, Mark I. Nanoscopy reveals surface-metallic black phosphorus. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1038/lsa.2016.162.
Abate, Yohannes, Gamage, Sampath, Li, Zhen, Babicheva, Viktoriia, Javani, Mohammad H., Wang, Han, Cronin, Stephen B., & Stockman, Mark I. Nanoscopy reveals surface-metallic black phosphorus. United States. doi:10.1038/lsa.2016.162.
Abate, Yohannes, Gamage, Sampath, Li, Zhen, Babicheva, Viktoriia, Javani, Mohammad H., Wang, Han, Cronin, Stephen B., and Stockman, Mark I. Fri . "Nanoscopy reveals surface-metallic black phosphorus". United States. doi:10.1038/lsa.2016.162. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1423792.
@article{osti_1423792,
title = {Nanoscopy reveals surface-metallic black phosphorus},
author = {Abate, Yohannes and Gamage, Sampath and Li, Zhen and Babicheva, Viktoriia and Javani, Mohammad H. and Wang, Han and Cronin, Stephen B. and Stockman, Mark I.},
abstractNote = {Black phosphorus (BP) is an emerging two-dimensional material with intriguing physical properties. It is highly anisotropic and highly tunable by means of both the number of monolayers and surface doping. Here, we experimentally investigate and theoretically interpret the near-field properties of a-few-atomic-monolayer nanoflakes of BP. We discover near-field patterns of bright outside fringes and a high surface polarizability of nanofilm BP consistent with its surface-metallic, plasmonic behavior at mid-infrared frequencies <1176 cm-1. We conclude that these fringes are caused by the formation of a highly polarizable layer at the BP surface. This layer has a thickness of ~1 nm and exhibits plasmonic behavior. We estimate that it contains free carriers in a concentration of n≈1.1 × 1020 cm-3. Surface plasmonic behavior is observed for 10–40 nm BP thicknesses but absent for a 4-nm BP thickness. This discovery opens up a new field of research and potential applications in nanoelectronics, plasmonics and optoelectronics.},
doi = {10.1038/lsa.2016.162},
journal = {Light, Science & Applications},
issn = {2047-7538},
number = ,
volume = 5,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {10}
}

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Cited by: 13 works
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Works referenced in this record:

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Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene
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