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Title: Sulfate Aerosol in the Arctic: Source Attribution and Radiative Forcing

Abstract

Source attributions of Arctic sulfate and its direct radiative effect for 2010–2014 are quantified in this study using the Community Earth System Model (CESM) equipped with an explicit sulfur source-tagging technique. Regions that have high emissions and/or are near/within the Arctic present relatively large contributions to Arctic sulfate burden, with the largest contribution from sources in East Asia (27%). East Asia and South Asia together have the largest contributions to Arctic sulfate concentrations at 9–12 km, whereas sources within or near the Arctic account largely below 2 km. For remote sources with strong emissions, their contributions to Arctic sulfate burden are primarily driven by meteorology, while contributions of sources within or near the Arctic are dominated by their emission strength. The sulfate direct radiative effect (DRE) is –0.080 W m-2 at the Arctic surface, offsetting the net warming effect from the combination of in-snow heating and DRE cooling from black carbon. East Asia, Arctic local and Russia/Belarus/Ukraine sources contribute –0.017, –0.016 and –0.014 W m-2, respectively, to Arctic sulfate DRE. A 20% reduction in anthropogenic SO2 emissions leads to a net increase of +0.013 W m-2 forcing at the Arctic surface. These results indicate that a joint reduction in BCmore » emissions could prevent possible Arctic warming from future reductions in SO2 emissions. Sulfate DRE efficiency calculations suggest that short transport pathways together with meteorology favoring long sulfate lifetimes make certain sources more efficient in influencing the Arctic sulfate DRE.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA
  2. Joint Global Change Research Institute, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, College Park MD USA
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1423416
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-126892
Journal ID: ISSN 2169-897X; 453040180; KP1703010
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 123; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-897X
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
meteorology; Arctic; sulfate; radiative; black carbon

Citation Formats

Yang, Yang, Wang, Hailong, Smith, Steven J., Easter, Richard C., and Rasch, Philip J. Sulfate Aerosol in the Arctic: Source Attribution and Radiative Forcing. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1002/2017JD027298.
Yang, Yang, Wang, Hailong, Smith, Steven J., Easter, Richard C., & Rasch, Philip J. Sulfate Aerosol in the Arctic: Source Attribution and Radiative Forcing. United States. doi:10.1002/2017JD027298.
Yang, Yang, Wang, Hailong, Smith, Steven J., Easter, Richard C., and Rasch, Philip J. Thu . "Sulfate Aerosol in the Arctic: Source Attribution and Radiative Forcing". United States. doi:10.1002/2017JD027298.
@article{osti_1423416,
title = {Sulfate Aerosol in the Arctic: Source Attribution and Radiative Forcing},
author = {Yang, Yang and Wang, Hailong and Smith, Steven J. and Easter, Richard C. and Rasch, Philip J.},
abstractNote = {Source attributions of Arctic sulfate and its direct radiative effect for 2010–2014 are quantified in this study using the Community Earth System Model (CESM) equipped with an explicit sulfur source-tagging technique. Regions that have high emissions and/or are near/within the Arctic present relatively large contributions to Arctic sulfate burden, with the largest contribution from sources in East Asia (27%). East Asia and South Asia together have the largest contributions to Arctic sulfate concentrations at 9–12 km, whereas sources within or near the Arctic account largely below 2 km. For remote sources with strong emissions, their contributions to Arctic sulfate burden are primarily driven by meteorology, while contributions of sources within or near the Arctic are dominated by their emission strength. The sulfate direct radiative effect (DRE) is –0.080 W m-2 at the Arctic surface, offsetting the net warming effect from the combination of in-snow heating and DRE cooling from black carbon. East Asia, Arctic local and Russia/Belarus/Ukraine sources contribute –0.017, –0.016 and –0.014 W m-2, respectively, to Arctic sulfate DRE. A 20% reduction in anthropogenic SO2 emissions leads to a net increase of +0.013 W m-2 forcing at the Arctic surface. These results indicate that a joint reduction in BC emissions could prevent possible Arctic warming from future reductions in SO2 emissions. Sulfate DRE efficiency calculations suggest that short transport pathways together with meteorology favoring long sulfate lifetimes make certain sources more efficient in influencing the Arctic sulfate DRE.},
doi = {10.1002/2017JD027298},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres},
issn = {2169-897X},
number = 3,
volume = 123,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {2}
}