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Title: Ethanol and methanol from cellulosic biomass

Abstract

Cellulosic biomass includes agricultural and forestry wastes, municipal solid waste, and energy crops. Enough ethanol or methanol could be made from cellulosic biomass in countries such as the United States to replace all gasoline, thereby reducing strategic vulnerability and lowering trade deficits for imports. Direct alcohol blends and gasoline containing ethers of ethanol or methanol decrease emissions of carbon monoxide, and neat alcohols reduce smog. In addition, producing alcohol fuels from biomass that is grown sustainably does not contribute to the accumulation of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the atmosphere. Significant progress has been made over the past few years in the technologies for converting biomass to ethanol or methanol. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process is favored for producing ethanol from cellulose, because of its low cost potential. Technology has also been developed for converting hemicellulose into ethanol. Burning the remaining fraction -- predominantly lignin -- can provide enough heat and electricity for the conversion process and generate extra electricity for export. Developments in conversion technology have reduced the projected selling price of ethanol from about US $45 per gigajoule ($0.95 per liter) ten years ago to only about $13 per gigajoule ($0.28 per liter) today. For methanolmore » production, improved gasification technology has been developed, and more economical syngas cleanup methods are available. The projected cost of methanol has been reduced from about $16 per gigajoule ($0.27 per liter) to less than $15 per gigajoule ($0.25 per liter) at present. Technical opportunities have been identified that could reduce the costs of ethanol and methanol produced from cellulosic biomass to levels competitive with gasoline (%0.21 per liter) derived from oil at $25 per barrel. 110 refs., 3 figs., 15 tabs.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1];  [2]
  1. National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)
  2. Cascade Research, Inc., Kennewick, WA (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
142309
Resource Type:
Book
Resource Relation:
Other Information: PBD: 1993; Related Information: Is Part Of Renewable energy: Sources for fuels and electricity; Johansson, T.B.; Kelly, H.; Reddy, A.K.N.; Williams, R.H. [eds.]; PB: 1177 p.
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
09 BIOMASS FUELS; 10 SYNTHETIC FUELS; BIOMASS; SACCHARIFICATION; ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS; GASIFICATION; ETHANOL; BIOSYNTHESIS; METHANOL; BIOMASS CONVERSION PLANTS; TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT; ECONOMICS; AGRICULTURAL WASTES; FOREST LITTER; MUNICIPAL WASTES; RESOURCE ASSESSMENT; GASOHOL; ALCOHOL FUELS; ETHERS; FUEL ADDITIVES; ALCOHOL FUEL CELLS; GAS GENERATORS; SYNTHESIS GAS; COAL GASIFICATION; NATURAL GAS; FUEL SUBSTITUTION

Citation Formats

Wyman, C E, Bain, R L, Hinman, N D, and Stevens, D J. Ethanol and methanol from cellulosic biomass. United States: N. p., 1993. Web.
Wyman, C E, Bain, R L, Hinman, N D, & Stevens, D J. Ethanol and methanol from cellulosic biomass. United States.
Wyman, C E, Bain, R L, Hinman, N D, and Stevens, D J. Fri . "Ethanol and methanol from cellulosic biomass". United States.
@article{osti_142309,
title = {Ethanol and methanol from cellulosic biomass},
author = {Wyman, C E and Bain, R L and Hinman, N D and Stevens, D J},
abstractNote = {Cellulosic biomass includes agricultural and forestry wastes, municipal solid waste, and energy crops. Enough ethanol or methanol could be made from cellulosic biomass in countries such as the United States to replace all gasoline, thereby reducing strategic vulnerability and lowering trade deficits for imports. Direct alcohol blends and gasoline containing ethers of ethanol or methanol decrease emissions of carbon monoxide, and neat alcohols reduce smog. In addition, producing alcohol fuels from biomass that is grown sustainably does not contribute to the accumulation of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the atmosphere. Significant progress has been made over the past few years in the technologies for converting biomass to ethanol or methanol. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process is favored for producing ethanol from cellulose, because of its low cost potential. Technology has also been developed for converting hemicellulose into ethanol. Burning the remaining fraction -- predominantly lignin -- can provide enough heat and electricity for the conversion process and generate extra electricity for export. Developments in conversion technology have reduced the projected selling price of ethanol from about US $45 per gigajoule ($0.95 per liter) ten years ago to only about $13 per gigajoule ($0.28 per liter) today. For methanol production, improved gasification technology has been developed, and more economical syngas cleanup methods are available. The projected cost of methanol has been reduced from about $16 per gigajoule ($0.27 per liter) to less than $15 per gigajoule ($0.25 per liter) at present. Technical opportunities have been identified that could reduce the costs of ethanol and methanol produced from cellulosic biomass to levels competitive with gasoline (%0.21 per liter) derived from oil at $25 per barrel. 110 refs., 3 figs., 15 tabs.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {1993},
month = {12}
}

Book:
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