skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Tunable Antireflection Coating to Remove Index-Matching Requirement for Interference Lithography

 [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, and Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana IL 61801 USA
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
OSTI Identifier:
Grant/Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Advanced Optical Materials
Additional Journal Information:
Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2018-02-23 03:33:17; Journal ID: ISSN 2195-1071
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
Country of Publication:

Citation Formats

Bacon-Brown, Daniel A., and Braun, Paul V. Tunable Antireflection Coating to Remove Index-Matching Requirement for Interference Lithography. Germany: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1002/adom.201701049.
Bacon-Brown, Daniel A., & Braun, Paul V. Tunable Antireflection Coating to Remove Index-Matching Requirement for Interference Lithography. Germany. doi:10.1002/adom.201701049.
Bacon-Brown, Daniel A., and Braun, Paul V. 2018. "Tunable Antireflection Coating to Remove Index-Matching Requirement for Interference Lithography". Germany. doi:10.1002/adom.201701049.
title = {Tunable Antireflection Coating to Remove Index-Matching Requirement for Interference Lithography},
author = {Bacon-Brown, Daniel A. and Braun, Paul V.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1002/adom.201701049},
journal = {Advanced Optical Materials},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {Germany},
year = 2018,
month = 2

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on February 23, 2019
Publisher's Accepted Manuscript

Save / Share:
  • Interference lithography has proven to be a useful technique for generating periodic sub-diffraction limited nanostructures. Interference lithography can be implemented by exposing a photoresist polymer to laser light using a two-beam arrangement or more simply a one beam configuration based on a Lloyd's Mirror Interferometer. For typical photoresist layers, an anti-reflection coating must be deposited on the substrate to prevent adverse reflections from cancelling the holographic pattern of the interfering beams. For silicon substrates, such coatings are typically multilayered and complex in composition. By thinning the photoresist layer to a thickness well below the quarter wavelength of the exposing beam,more » we demonstrate that interference gratings can be generated without an anti-reflection coating on the substrate. We used ammonium dichromate doped polyvinyl alcohol as the positive photoresist because it provides excellent pinhole free layers down to thicknesses of 40 nm, and can be cross-linked by a low-cost single mode 457 nm laser, and can be etched in water. Gratings with a period of 320 nm and depth of 4 nm were realized, as well as a variety of morphologies depending on the photoresist thickness. This simplified interference lithography technique promises to be useful for generating periodic nanostructures with high fidelity and minimal substrate treatments.« less
  • Ordered and free-standing metallic nanowires were fabricated by e-beam deposition on patterned polymer templates made by interference lithography. The dimensions of the nanowires can be controlled through adjustment of deposition conditions and polymer templates. Grain size, polarized optical transmission and electrical resistivity were measured with ordered and free-standing nanowires.
  • Inspired by nature, a number of techniques have been developed to fabricate the bionic structures of lotus leaves and moth eyes in order to realize the extraordinary functions of self-cleaning and antireflection. Compared with the existing technologies, we present a straightforward method to fabricate well-defined micro and nano artificial bio-structures in this work. The proposed method of direct laser interference nanomanufacturing (DLIN) takes a significant advantage of high efficiency as only a single technological procedure is needed without pretreatment, mask, and pattern transfer processes. Meanwhile, the corresponding structures show both antireflection and superhydrophobicity properties simultaneously. The developed four-beam nanosecond lasermore » interference system configuring the TE-TE-TE-TE and TE-TE-TE-TM polarization modes was set up to generate periodic micro cone and hole structures with a huge number of nano features on the surface. The theoretical and experimental results have shown that the periodic microcone structure exhibits excellent properties with both a high contact angle (CA = 156.3°) and low omnidirectional reflectance (5.9–15.4%). Thus, DLIN is a novel and promising method suitable for mass production of self-cleaning and antireflection surface structures.« less
  • Mechanically hard and broadband gradient refractive index antireflection coating was developed. It has a high damage threshold of > or approx. =6 J/cm/sup 2/ at 355 nm and 12--13 J/cm/sup 2/ in the visible to near-infrared region. It will be applicable to high power pulsed lasers as well as to industrial uses.
  • A high-speed production process is described for depositing a single-layer, quarter-wavelength thick anti-reflection coating of titanium dioxide on metal-patterned single-crystal silicon solar cells for terrestrial applications. Controlled atomization spraying of an organo-titanium solution was selected as the most cost-effective method of film deposition using commercial automated equipment. The optimal composition consists of titanium isopropoxide as the titanium source, eta-butyl acetate as the diluent solvent, sec-butanol as the leveling agent, and 2-ethyl-1-hexanol to render the material uniformly depositable. Application of the process to the coating of circular, large-diameter solar cells with either screenprinted silver metallization or with vacuum-evaporated Ti/Pd/Ag metallization showedmore » increases of over 40% in electrical-conversion efficiency. Optical characteristics, corrosion resistance, and several other important properties of the spray-deposited film are reported. Experimental evidence is presented that indicates a wide tolerance in the coating thickness upon the overall efficiency of the cell. In addition, considerations pertaining to the optimization of anti-reflection coatings in general are discussed and a comprehensive critical survey of the literature is presented. 66 references.« less