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Title: Identification of Uranium Minerals in Natural U-Bearing Rocks Using Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy

Abstract

The identification of minerals, including uranium-bearing minerals, is traditionally a labor-intensive-process using x-ray diffraction (XRD), fluorescence, or other solid-phase and wet chemical techniques. While handheld XRD and fluorescence instruments can aid in field identification, handheld infrared reflectance spectrometers can also be used in industrial or field environments, with rapid, non-destructive identification possible via spectral analysis of the solid’s reflectance spectrum. We have recently developed standard laboratory measurement methods for the infrared (IR) reflectance of solids and have investigated using these techniques for the identification of uranium-bearing minerals, using XRD methods for ground-truth. Due to the rich colors of such species, including distinctive spectroscopic signatures in the infrared, identification is facile and specific, both for samples that are pure or are partially composed of uranium (e.g. boltwoodite, schoepite, tyuyamunite, carnotite, etc.) or non-uranium minerals. The method can be used to detect not only pure and partial minerals, but is quite sensitive to chemical change such as hydration (e.g. schoepite). We have further applied statistical methods, in particular classical least squares (CLS) and multivariate curve resolution (MCR) for discrimination of such uranium minerals and two uranium pure chemicals (U3O8 and UO2) against common background materials (e.g. silica sand, asphalt, calcite, K-feldspar) withmore » good success. Each mineral contains unique infrared spectral features; some of the IR features are similar or common to entire classes of minerals, typically arising from similar chemical moieties or functional groups in the minerals: phosphates, sulfates, carbonates, etc. These characteristic 2 infrared bands generate the unique (or class-specific) bands that distinguish the mineral from the interferents or backgrounds. We have observed several cases where the chemical moieties that provide the spectral discrimination in the longwave IR do so by generating upward-going reststrahlen bands in the reflectance data, but the same minerals have other weaker (overtone) bands, sometimes from the same chemical groups, that are manifest as downward-going transmission-type features in the midwave and shortwave infrared.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA
  2. Eigenvector Research, Inc., Manson, WA, USA
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1421317
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-126896
Journal ID: ISSN 0003-7028; DN2001000
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Applied Spectroscopy
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 72; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 0003-7028
Publisher:
Society for Applied Spectroscopy
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Beiswenger, Toya N., Gallagher, Neal B., Myers, Tanya L., Szecsody, James E., Tonkyn, Russell G., Su, Yin-Fong, Sweet, Lucas E., Lewallen, Tricia A., and Johnson, Timothy J. Identification of Uranium Minerals in Natural U-Bearing Rocks Using Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1177/0003702817743265.
Beiswenger, Toya N., Gallagher, Neal B., Myers, Tanya L., Szecsody, James E., Tonkyn, Russell G., Su, Yin-Fong, Sweet, Lucas E., Lewallen, Tricia A., & Johnson, Timothy J. Identification of Uranium Minerals in Natural U-Bearing Rocks Using Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy. United States. doi:10.1177/0003702817743265.
Beiswenger, Toya N., Gallagher, Neal B., Myers, Tanya L., Szecsody, James E., Tonkyn, Russell G., Su, Yin-Fong, Sweet, Lucas E., Lewallen, Tricia A., and Johnson, Timothy J. Tue . "Identification of Uranium Minerals in Natural U-Bearing Rocks Using Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy". United States. doi:10.1177/0003702817743265.
@article{osti_1421317,
title = {Identification of Uranium Minerals in Natural U-Bearing Rocks Using Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy},
author = {Beiswenger, Toya N. and Gallagher, Neal B. and Myers, Tanya L. and Szecsody, James E. and Tonkyn, Russell G. and Su, Yin-Fong and Sweet, Lucas E. and Lewallen, Tricia A. and Johnson, Timothy J.},
abstractNote = {The identification of minerals, including uranium-bearing minerals, is traditionally a labor-intensive-process using x-ray diffraction (XRD), fluorescence, or other solid-phase and wet chemical techniques. While handheld XRD and fluorescence instruments can aid in field identification, handheld infrared reflectance spectrometers can also be used in industrial or field environments, with rapid, non-destructive identification possible via spectral analysis of the solid’s reflectance spectrum. We have recently developed standard laboratory measurement methods for the infrared (IR) reflectance of solids and have investigated using these techniques for the identification of uranium-bearing minerals, using XRD methods for ground-truth. Due to the rich colors of such species, including distinctive spectroscopic signatures in the infrared, identification is facile and specific, both for samples that are pure or are partially composed of uranium (e.g. boltwoodite, schoepite, tyuyamunite, carnotite, etc.) or non-uranium minerals. The method can be used to detect not only pure and partial minerals, but is quite sensitive to chemical change such as hydration (e.g. schoepite). We have further applied statistical methods, in particular classical least squares (CLS) and multivariate curve resolution (MCR) for discrimination of such uranium minerals and two uranium pure chemicals (U3O8 and UO2) against common background materials (e.g. silica sand, asphalt, calcite, K-feldspar) with good success. Each mineral contains unique infrared spectral features; some of the IR features are similar or common to entire classes of minerals, typically arising from similar chemical moieties or functional groups in the minerals: phosphates, sulfates, carbonates, etc. These characteristic 2 infrared bands generate the unique (or class-specific) bands that distinguish the mineral from the interferents or backgrounds. We have observed several cases where the chemical moieties that provide the spectral discrimination in the longwave IR do so by generating upward-going reststrahlen bands in the reflectance data, but the same minerals have other weaker (overtone) bands, sometimes from the same chemical groups, that are manifest as downward-going transmission-type features in the midwave and shortwave infrared.},
doi = {10.1177/0003702817743265},
journal = {Applied Spectroscopy},
issn = {0003-7028},
number = 2,
volume = 72,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {10}
}

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