skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Final Technical Report: Affordable, High-Performance, Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Abstract

In this project, we improved the power output and voltage efficiency of our intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) with a focus on ~600 °C operation. At these temperatures and with the increased power density (i.e., fewer cells for same power output), the stack cost should be greatly reduced while extending durability. Most SOFC stacks operate at temperatures greater than 800 °C. This can greatly increase the cost of the system (stacks and BOP) as well as maintenance costs since the most common degradation mechanisms are thermally driven. Our approach uses no platinum group metal (PGM) materials and the lower operating temperature allows use of simple stainless steel interconnects and commercial off-the-shelf gaskets in the stack. Furthermore, for combined heating and power (CHP) applications the stack exhaust still provides “high quality” waste heat that can be recovered and used in a chiller or boiler. The anticipated performance, durability, and resulting cost improvements (< $700/kWe) will also move us closer to reaching the full potential of this technology for distributed generation (DG) and residential/commercial CHP. This includes eventual extension to cleaner, more efficient portable generators, auxiliary power units (APUs), and range extenders for transportation. The research added to the understandingmore » of the area investigated by exploring various methods for increasing power density (Watts/square centimeter of active area in each cell) and increasing cell efficiency (increasing the open circuit voltage, or cell voltage with zero external electrical current). The results from this work demonstrated an optimized cell that had greater than 1 W/cm2 at 600 °C and greater than 1.6 W/cm2 at 650 °C. This was demonstrated in large format sizes using both 5 cm by 5 cm and 10 cm by 10 cm cells. Furthermore, this work demonstrated that high stability (no degradation over > 500 hours) can be achieved together with high performance in large format cells as large as 10 cm by 10 cm when operated at ~600 °C. The project culminated in the demonstration of a 12-cell stack using the porous anode-based SOFC technology.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Redox Power Systems, LLC, College Park, MD (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Redox Power Systems, LLC, College Park, MD (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Fuel Cell Technologies Office (EE-3F)
OSTI Identifier:
1420977
Report Number(s):
DOE-REDOX-0006735
DOE Contract Number:  
EE0006735
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
03 NATURAL GAS; 08 HYDROGEN; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 42 ENGINEERING; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; solid oxide fuel cell; high power density; stack; SOFC stack

Citation Formats

Blackburn, Bryan M., Bishop, Sean, Gore, Colin, Wang, Lei, Correa, Luis, Langdo, Thomas, Deaconu, Stelu, and Pan, Keji. Final Technical Report: Affordable, High-Performance, Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.2172/1420977.
Blackburn, Bryan M., Bishop, Sean, Gore, Colin, Wang, Lei, Correa, Luis, Langdo, Thomas, Deaconu, Stelu, & Pan, Keji. Final Technical Report: Affordable, High-Performance, Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. United States. doi:10.2172/1420977.
Blackburn, Bryan M., Bishop, Sean, Gore, Colin, Wang, Lei, Correa, Luis, Langdo, Thomas, Deaconu, Stelu, and Pan, Keji. Thu . "Final Technical Report: Affordable, High-Performance, Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells". United States. doi:10.2172/1420977. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1420977.
@article{osti_1420977,
title = {Final Technical Report: Affordable, High-Performance, Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells},
author = {Blackburn, Bryan M. and Bishop, Sean and Gore, Colin and Wang, Lei and Correa, Luis and Langdo, Thomas and Deaconu, Stelu and Pan, Keji},
abstractNote = {In this project, we improved the power output and voltage efficiency of our intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) with a focus on ~600 °C operation. At these temperatures and with the increased power density (i.e., fewer cells for same power output), the stack cost should be greatly reduced while extending durability. Most SOFC stacks operate at temperatures greater than 800 °C. This can greatly increase the cost of the system (stacks and BOP) as well as maintenance costs since the most common degradation mechanisms are thermally driven. Our approach uses no platinum group metal (PGM) materials and the lower operating temperature allows use of simple stainless steel interconnects and commercial off-the-shelf gaskets in the stack. Furthermore, for combined heating and power (CHP) applications the stack exhaust still provides “high quality” waste heat that can be recovered and used in a chiller or boiler. The anticipated performance, durability, and resulting cost improvements (< $700/kWe) will also move us closer to reaching the full potential of this technology for distributed generation (DG) and residential/commercial CHP. This includes eventual extension to cleaner, more efficient portable generators, auxiliary power units (APUs), and range extenders for transportation. The research added to the understanding of the area investigated by exploring various methods for increasing power density (Watts/square centimeter of active area in each cell) and increasing cell efficiency (increasing the open circuit voltage, or cell voltage with zero external electrical current). The results from this work demonstrated an optimized cell that had greater than 1 W/cm2 at 600 °C and greater than 1.6 W/cm2 at 650 °C. This was demonstrated in large format sizes using both 5 cm by 5 cm and 10 cm by 10 cm cells. Furthermore, this work demonstrated that high stability (no degradation over > 500 hours) can be achieved together with high performance in large format cells as large as 10 cm by 10 cm when operated at ~600 °C. The project culminated in the demonstration of a 12-cell stack using the porous anode-based SOFC technology.},
doi = {10.2172/1420977},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {2}
}