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Title: Unoccupied surface state induced by ozone and ammonia on H-terminated diamond electrodes for photocatalytic ammonia synthesis

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]; ;
  1. Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 6 Cyclotron Rd., Berkeley, California 94720
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1420547
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231; SC0006931
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology. A, Vacuum, Surfaces and Films
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 35; Journal Issue: 4; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2018-02-14 13:23:47; Journal ID: ISSN 0734-2101
Publisher:
American Vacuum Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Boukahil, Idris, Johnson, Phillip S., Himpsel, F. J., Qiao, Ruimin, Bandy, Jason A., and Hamers, Robert J. Unoccupied surface state induced by ozone and ammonia on H-terminated diamond electrodes for photocatalytic ammonia synthesis. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1116/1.4980041.
Boukahil, Idris, Johnson, Phillip S., Himpsel, F. J., Qiao, Ruimin, Bandy, Jason A., & Hamers, Robert J. Unoccupied surface state induced by ozone and ammonia on H-terminated diamond electrodes for photocatalytic ammonia synthesis. United States. doi:10.1116/1.4980041.
Boukahil, Idris, Johnson, Phillip S., Himpsel, F. J., Qiao, Ruimin, Bandy, Jason A., and Hamers, Robert J. Sat . "Unoccupied surface state induced by ozone and ammonia on H-terminated diamond electrodes for photocatalytic ammonia synthesis". United States. doi:10.1116/1.4980041.
@article{osti_1420547,
title = {Unoccupied surface state induced by ozone and ammonia on H-terminated diamond electrodes for photocatalytic ammonia synthesis},
author = {Boukahil, Idris and Johnson, Phillip S. and Himpsel, F. J. and Qiao, Ruimin and Bandy, Jason A. and Hamers, Robert J.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1116/1.4980041},
journal = {Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology. A, Vacuum, Surfaces and Films},
number = 4,
volume = 35,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Jul 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Sat Jul 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1116/1.4980041

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  • Unoccupied electronic states at the diamond (111) surface are studied by measuring both bulk- and surface-sensitive C 1s partial-yield soft-x-ray absorption spectra. Several absorption features are observed in the bulk band gap below the 289.19-eV bulk-C 1s absorption edge. They are associated with transitions from the C 1s surface core level to unoccupied surface states by their sensitivity to chemisorbed species and changes in their intensity as the electron escape depth is varied. These states have been detected previously with electron-energy-loss spectroscopy but no structure was resolved. The close proximity of the observed surface absorption (onset at h = 284more » eV) with the h = 285.35 eV, C 1s ( transition in graphite indicates the existence of unoccupied ( bands at the diamond (111) surface. An interpretation of these results in terms of the -bonded chain model for the diamond (111) 2 x 1 reconstructed surface is given.« less
  • The energy band-lineup and the electronic structure of NO{sub 2}-exposed H-terminated diamond/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} heterointerface have been investigated by synchrotron radiation photoemission and x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) measurements. It is found that the energy band-lineup is stagger-type, so-called type-II, with its valence band discontinuity of as high as 3.9 eV and its conduction band discontinuity of 2.7 eV. The valence band maximum of the H-terminated diamond surface is positioned at Fermi level as a result of high-density hole accumulation on the diamond side. The XANES measurement has shown that the oxygen-derived interface state locates at about 1–3 eV above the Fermi level.
  • Impedance spectroscopy (IS) analysis is carried out to investigate the electrical properties of the metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structure fabricated on hydrogen-terminated single crystal diamond. The low-temperature atomic layer deposition Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is employed as the insulator in the MOS structure. By numerically analysing the impedance of the MOS structure at various biases, the equivalent circuit of the diamond MOS structure is derived, which is composed of two parallel capacitive and resistance pairs, in series connection with both resistance and inductance. The two capacitive components are resulted from the insulator, the hydrogenated-diamond surface, and their interface. The physical parameters such asmore » the insulator capacitance are obtained, circumventing the series resistance and inductance effect. By comparing the IS and capacitance-voltage measurements, the frequency dispersion of the capacitance-voltage characteristic is discussed.« less
  • An H-terminated diamond field-effect-transistor (FET) with a ferroelectric vinylidene fluoride (VDF)-trifluoroethylene (TrFE) copolymer gate insulator was fabricated. The VDF-TrFE film was deposited on the H-terminated diamond by the spin-coating method and low-temperature annealing was performed to suppress processing damage to the H-terminated diamond surface channel layer. The fabricated FET structure showed the typical properties of depletion-type p-channel FET and showed clear saturation of the drain current with a maximum value of 50 mA/mm. The drain current versus gate voltage curves of the proposed FET showed clockwise hysteresis loops due to the ferroelectricity of the VDF-TrFE gate insulator, and the memory windowmore » width was 19 V, when the gate voltage was swept from 20 to −20 V. The maximum on/off current ratio and the linear mobility were 10{sup 8} and 398 cm{sup 2}/V s, respectively. In addition, we modulated the drain current of the fabricated FET structure via the remnant polarization of the VDF-TrFE gate and obtained an on/off current ratio of 10{sup 3} without applying a DC gate voltage.« less
  • We present a method for the formation of an epitaxial  surface layer involving B, N, and Si atoms on a ZrB{sub 2}(0001) thin film on Si(111). It has the potential to be an insulating growth template for 2D semiconductors. The chemical reaction of NH{sub 3} molecules with the silicene-terminated ZrB{sub 2}  surface was characterized by synchrotron-based, high-resolution core-level photoelectron spectroscopy and low-energy electron diffraction. In particular, the dissociative chemisorption of NH{sub 3} at 400 °C leads to surface  nitridation, and subsequent annealing up to 830 °C results in a solid phase reaction with the ZrB{sub 2} subsurface layers. In this way, amore » new nitride-based epitaxial  surface layer is formed with hexagonal symmetry and a single in-plane crystal orientation.« less