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Title: Four-Wave-Mixing Approach to In Situ Detection of Nanoparticles

Abstract

Here, we report on the development and experimental validation of a laser-based technique which uses coherent Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering (CRBS) to detect nanoparticles with characteristic sizes ranging from the atomic scale to tens of nanometers. This technique is aimed (nonexclusively) at the detection of nanoparticles produced by volumetric nanoparticle synthesis methods. Using CRBS, carbon nanoparticles of dimensions less than 10 nm and concentrations of 10 10 cm –3 are detected in situ in a carbon arc discharge with graphite electrodes. This four-wave-mixing approach should enable advances in the understanding of nanoparticle growth that could potentially lead to improved modeling of the growth mechanisms, and thus to improve synthesis selectivity of nanoparticles and yield.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
  2. Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1420375
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1418392
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-09CH11466
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review Applied
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 9; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2331-7019
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS

Citation Formats

Gerakis, Alexandros, Yeh, Yao -Wen, Shneider, Mikhail N., Mitrani, James M., Stratton, Brentley C., and Raitses, Yevgeny. Four-Wave-Mixing Approach to In Situ Detection of Nanoparticles. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevApplied.9.014031.
Gerakis, Alexandros, Yeh, Yao -Wen, Shneider, Mikhail N., Mitrani, James M., Stratton, Brentley C., & Raitses, Yevgeny. Four-Wave-Mixing Approach to In Situ Detection of Nanoparticles. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevApplied.9.014031.
Gerakis, Alexandros, Yeh, Yao -Wen, Shneider, Mikhail N., Mitrani, James M., Stratton, Brentley C., and Raitses, Yevgeny. Mon . "Four-Wave-Mixing Approach to In Situ Detection of Nanoparticles". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevApplied.9.014031.
@article{osti_1420375,
title = {Four-Wave-Mixing Approach to In Situ Detection of Nanoparticles},
author = {Gerakis, Alexandros and Yeh, Yao -Wen and Shneider, Mikhail N. and Mitrani, James M. and Stratton, Brentley C. and Raitses, Yevgeny},
abstractNote = {Here, we report on the development and experimental validation of a laser-based technique which uses coherent Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering (CRBS) to detect nanoparticles with characteristic sizes ranging from the atomic scale to tens of nanometers. This technique is aimed (nonexclusively) at the detection of nanoparticles produced by volumetric nanoparticle synthesis methods. Using CRBS, carbon nanoparticles of dimensions less than 10 nm and concentrations of 1010 cm–3 are detected in situ in a carbon arc discharge with graphite electrodes. This four-wave-mixing approach should enable advances in the understanding of nanoparticle growth that could potentially lead to improved modeling of the growth mechanisms, and thus to improve synthesis selectivity of nanoparticles and yield.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevApplied.9.014031},
journal = {Physical Review Applied},
number = 1,
volume = 9,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 29 00:00:00 EST 2018},
month = {Mon Jan 29 00:00:00 EST 2018}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
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  • The observation of an atomic wave packet by use of a coherent, nonlinear-optical process is reported. Wave packets formed in K or Rb vapor by two-photon excitation of ns and (n{minus}2)d states (n=8 for K; n=11 , 12 for Rb) with red ({approximately}620{minus}nm) , 80{endash}100-fs pulses were detected by four-wave mixing in pump-probe experiments. The temporal behavior of the wave packet is observed by monitoring the coherent UV radiation generated near the alkali mp {sup 2}P {r_arrow} {sup 2}S{sub 1/2} (7{le}m{le}12 for Rb; 5{le}m{le}7 for K) resonance transitions when a probe pulse is scattered by the wave packet established bymore » the earlier (identical) pump pulse. The spatial and spectral characteristics of the UV emission are well described by axially phase-matched four-wave mixing, and all the prominent frequency components of the wave packets are associated with energy differences between pairs of excited states for which {Delta}l=0 or {Delta}l=2 . These results demonstrate that the wave packet modulates {chi}{sup (3)} of the medium, thus rendering the wave packet detectable. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital Optical Society of America}« less
  • We report the spatially resolved detection of methyl radicals in a methane--air flat flame, using degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM). A frequency-tripled dye laser pumped with a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser was used to access the Herzberg {beta}{sub 1} band of methyl near 216 nm. Using a nearly phase-conjugate geometry, we detected methyl with high spatial resolution [0.2 mm (0.3 mm) vertical (horizontal) and {similar_to}6 mm longitudinal] and with good signal-to-noise ratio in a rich ({phi}=1.55) flame. Compared with laser absorption spectra, DFWM spectra were much less influenced by a broad featureless background. From the absorption data, we measured the peak methylmore » concentration to be 650 parts in 10{sup 6}, resulting in an estimated DFWM detection limit of 65 parts in 10{sup 6}. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital Optical} {ital Society} {ital of} {ital America}.« less
  • This study compares the performance of the first degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) study to detect the CH radical with the established method of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering. It was found that trace flame species can be detected at atmospheric pressure with high sensitivity using DFWM. 39 refs., 10 figs.
  • We have developed a sensitive resonant four-wave mixing technique based on two-photon parametric four-wave mixing with the addition of a phase matched {open_quotes}seeder{close_quotes} field. Generation of the seeder field via the same four-wave mixing process in a high pressure cell enables automatic phase matching to be achieved in a low pressure sample cell. This arrangement facilitates sensitive detection of complex molecular spectra by simply tuning the pump laser. We demonstrate the technique with the detection of nitric oxide down to concentrations more than 4 orders of magnitude below the capability of parametric four-wave mixing alone, with an estimated detection thresholdmore » of 10{sup 12} molecules/cm {sup 3} . {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}« less