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Title: Small Scale Field Test Demonstrating CO 2 Sequestration In Arbuckle Saline Aquifer And By CO 2-Eor At Wellington Field, Sumner County, Kansas

Abstract

The objectives of this project are to understand the processes that occur when a maximum of 70,000 metric tonnes of CO 2 are injected into two different formations to evaluate the response in different lithofacies and depositional environments. The evaluation will be accomplished through the use of both in situ and indirect MVA (monitoring, verification, and accounting) technologies. The project will optimize for carbon storage accounting for 99% of the CO 2 using lab and field testing and comprehensive characterization and modeling techniques. Site characterization and CO 2 injection should demonstrate state-of-the-art MVA tools and techniques to monitor and visualize the injected CO 2 plume and to refine geomodels developed using nearly continuous core, exhaustive wireline logs, and well tests and a multi-component 3-D seismic survey. Reservoir simulation studies will map the injected CO 2 plume and estimate tonnage of CO 2 stored in solution, as residual gas, and by mineralization and integrate MVA results and reservoir models shall be used to evaluate CO 2 leakage. A rapid-response mitigation plan was developed to minimize CO 2 leakage and provide a comprehensive risk management strategy. The CO 2 was intended to be supplied from a reliable facility and have an adequatemore » delivery and quality of CO 2. However, several unforeseen circumstances complicated this plan: (1) the initially negotiated CO 2 supply facility went offline and contracts associated with CO 2 supply had to be renegotiated, (2) a UIC Class VI permit proved to be difficult to obtain due to the experimental nature of the project. Both subjects are detailed in separate deliverables attached to this report. The CO 2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and geologic storage in Mississippian carbonate reservoir was sucessully deployed. Approximately 20,000 metric tons of CO 2 was injected in the upper part of the Mississippian reservoir to verify CO 2 EOR viability in carbonate reservoirs and evaluate a potential of transitioning to geologic CO 2 storage through EOR. A total of 1,101 truckloads, 19,803 metric tons—an average of 120 tonnes per day—were delivered over the course of injection that lasted from January 9 to June 21, 2016. After cessation of CO 2 injection, the KGS 2-32 well was converted to water injector and continues to operate. CO 2 EOR progression in the field was monitored weekly with fluid level, temperature, and production recording and formation fluid composition sampling. It is important to note that normally, CO 2 EOR pilots are less efficient than commercial operations due to lack of directional and precise well control, lack of surface facilities for CO 2 recycling, and other factors. As a result of this pilot CO 2 injection, the observed incremental average oil production increase was ~68% with only ~18% of injected CO 2 produced back. Decline curve analysis forecasts of additional cumulative oil produced were 32.44M STB to the end of 2027. Wellington Mississippian pilot efficiency by the end of forecast calculations is 11 MCF per barrel of produced oil. Using 32M STB oil production and $1,964,063 cost of CO 2, CO 2 EOR cost per barrel of oil production is ~$60. Simple but robust monitoring technologies proved to be very efficient in detecting and locating CO 2. High CO 2 reservoir retentions with low yields within an actively producing field could help to estimate real-world risks of CO 2 geological storage for future projects. The Wellington Field CO 2 EOR was executed in a controlled environment with high efficiency. This case study proves that CO 2 EOR could be successfully applied in Kansas carbonate reservoirs if CO 2 sources and associated infrastructure are available. Recent developments in unconventional resources development in Mid-Continent USA and associated large volume disposal of backflow water and the resulting seismic activity have brought more focus and attention to the Arbuckle Group in southern Kansas. Despite the commercial interest, limited essential information about reservoir properties and structural elements has impeded the management and regulation of disposal, an issue brought to the forefront by recent seismicity in and near areas of large volumes and rates of brine disposal. The Kansas Geological Survey (KGS) collected, compiled, and analyzed available data, including well logs, core data, step rate tests, drill stem tests, 2-D and 3-D seismic data, water level measurements, and others types of data. Several exploratory wells were drilled and core was collected and modern suites of logs were analyzed. Reservoir properties were populated into several site-specific geological models. The geological models illustrate the highly heterogeneous nature of the Arbuckle Group. Vertical and horizontal variability results in several distinct hydro-stratigraphic units that are the result of both depositional and diagenetic processes. During the course of this project, it has been demonstrated that advanced seismic interpretation methods can be used successfully for characterization of the Mississippian reservoir and Arbuckle saline aquifer. Analysis of post-stack 3-D seismic data at the Mississippian reservoir showed the response of a gradational velocity transition. Pre-stack gather analysis showed that porosity zones of the Mississippian and Arbuckle reservoirs exhibit characteristic amplitude versus offset (AVO) response. Simultaneous AVO inversion estimated P- and S-impedances. The 3-D survey gather azimuthal anisotropy analysis (AVAZ) provided information about the fault and fracture network and showed good agreement to the regional stress field and well data. Mississippian reservoir porosity and fracture predictions agreed well with the observed mobility of injected CO 2 in KGS well 2-32. Fluid substitution modeling predicted acoustic impedance reduction in the Mississippian carbonate reservoir introduced by the presence of CO 2. Seismicity in the United States midcontinent has increased by orders of magnitude over the past decade. Spatiotemporal correlations of seismicity to wastewater injection operations have suggested that injection-related pore fluid pressure increases are inducing the earthquakes. In this investigation, we examine earthquake occurrence in southern Kansas and northern Oklahoma and its relation to the change in pore pressure. The main source of data comes from the Wellington Array in the Wellington oil field, in Sumner County, Kansas, which has monitored for earthquakes in central Sumner County, Kansas, since early 2015. The seismometer array was established to monitor CO 2 injection operations at Wellington Field. Although no seismicity was detected in association with the spring 2016 Mississippian CO 2 injection, the array has recorded more than 2,500 earthquakes in the region and is providing valuable understanding to induced seismicity. A catalog of earthquakes was built from this data and was analyzed for spatial and temporal changes, stress information, and anisotropy information. The region of seismic concern has been shown to be expanding through use of the Wellington earthquake catalog, which has revealed a northward progression of earthquake activity reaching the metropolitan area of Wichita. The stress orientation was also calculated from this earthquake catalog through focal mechanism inversion. The calculated stress orientation was confirmed through comparison to other stress measurements from well data and previous earthquake studies in the region. With this knowledge of the stress orientation, the anisotropy in the basement could be understood. This allowed for the anisotropy measurements to be correlated to pore pressure increases. The increase in pore pressure was monitored through time-lapse shear-wave anisotropy analysis. Since the onset of the observation period in 2010, the orientation of the fast shear wave has rotated 90°, indicating a change associated with critical pore pressure build up. The time delay between fast and slow shear wave arrivals has increased, indicating a corresponding increase in anisotropy induced by pore pressure rise. In-situ near-basement fluid pressure measurements corroborate the continuous pore pressure increase revealed by the shear-wave anisotropy analysis over the earthquake monitoring period. This research is the first to identify a change in pore fluid pressure in the basement using seismological data and it was recently published in the AAAS journal Science Advances (Nolte et al., 2017). The shear-wave splitting analysis is a novel application of the technique, which can be used in other regions to identify an increase in pore pressure. This increasing pore fluid pressure has become more regionally extensive as earthquakes are occurring in southern Kansas, where they previously were absent. These monitoring techniques and analyses provide new insight into mitigating induced seismicity’s impact on society.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [4];  [4];  [4]
  1. Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States). Center for Research & Kansas Geological Survey
  2. TBirdie Consulting, Lawrence, KS (United States)
  3. Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States). Dept. of Geology
  4. Berexco, LLC, Wichita, KS (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States). Center for Research & Kansas Geological Survey
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE), Clean Coal and Carbon (FE-20)
Contributing Org.:
Berexco, LLC., University of Kansas Department of Geology, IRIS-PASSCAL, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Electric Power Research Institute, Paragon Geophysical Services, Inc., Trilobite Testing Services
OSTI Identifier:
1420310
Report Number(s):
DOE-KGS-06821
DUNS 076248616
DOE Contract Number:  
FE0006821
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
02 PETROLEUM; 25 ENERGY STORAGE; 29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY, AND ECONOMY; 99 GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS; Carbon Storage; CO2-EOR; Carbon Capture Storage and Utilization; Carbon Sequestration; Geologic Carbon Storage; Class VI Permitting; Saline Aquifer Storage; Kansas Geological Survey; Energy Research; CO2 Injection

Citation Formats

Holubnyak, Yevhen Eugene, Watney, Lynn, Hollenbach, Jennifer, Bidgoli, Tandis, Fazelalavi, Fatemeh Mina, Doveton, John, Victorine, John, Birdie, Tiraz, Nolte, Alex, Tsoflias, Georgios, Graham, Brandon, Wreath, Dana, Bruns, Jason, and Blazer, Brett. Small Scale Field Test Demonstrating CO2 Sequestration In Arbuckle Saline Aquifer And By CO2-Eor At Wellington Field, Sumner County, Kansas. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1420310.
Holubnyak, Yevhen Eugene, Watney, Lynn, Hollenbach, Jennifer, Bidgoli, Tandis, Fazelalavi, Fatemeh Mina, Doveton, John, Victorine, John, Birdie, Tiraz, Nolte, Alex, Tsoflias, Georgios, Graham, Brandon, Wreath, Dana, Bruns, Jason, & Blazer, Brett. Small Scale Field Test Demonstrating CO2 Sequestration In Arbuckle Saline Aquifer And By CO2-Eor At Wellington Field, Sumner County, Kansas. United States. doi:10.2172/1420310.
Holubnyak, Yevhen Eugene, Watney, Lynn, Hollenbach, Jennifer, Bidgoli, Tandis, Fazelalavi, Fatemeh Mina, Doveton, John, Victorine, John, Birdie, Tiraz, Nolte, Alex, Tsoflias, Georgios, Graham, Brandon, Wreath, Dana, Bruns, Jason, and Blazer, Brett. Sun . "Small Scale Field Test Demonstrating CO2 Sequestration In Arbuckle Saline Aquifer And By CO2-Eor At Wellington Field, Sumner County, Kansas". United States. doi:10.2172/1420310. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1420310.
@article{osti_1420310,
title = {Small Scale Field Test Demonstrating CO2 Sequestration In Arbuckle Saline Aquifer And By CO2-Eor At Wellington Field, Sumner County, Kansas},
author = {Holubnyak, Yevhen Eugene and Watney, Lynn and Hollenbach, Jennifer and Bidgoli, Tandis and Fazelalavi, Fatemeh Mina and Doveton, John and Victorine, John and Birdie, Tiraz and Nolte, Alex and Tsoflias, Georgios and Graham, Brandon and Wreath, Dana and Bruns, Jason and Blazer, Brett},
abstractNote = {The objectives of this project are to understand the processes that occur when a maximum of 70,000 metric tonnes of CO2 are injected into two different formations to evaluate the response in different lithofacies and depositional environments. The evaluation will be accomplished through the use of both in situ and indirect MVA (monitoring, verification, and accounting) technologies. The project will optimize for carbon storage accounting for 99% of the CO2 using lab and field testing and comprehensive characterization and modeling techniques. Site characterization and CO2 injection should demonstrate state-of-the-art MVA tools and techniques to monitor and visualize the injected CO2 plume and to refine geomodels developed using nearly continuous core, exhaustive wireline logs, and well tests and a multi-component 3-D seismic survey. Reservoir simulation studies will map the injected CO2 plume and estimate tonnage of CO2 stored in solution, as residual gas, and by mineralization and integrate MVA results and reservoir models shall be used to evaluate CO2 leakage. A rapid-response mitigation plan was developed to minimize CO2 leakage and provide a comprehensive risk management strategy. The CO2 was intended to be supplied from a reliable facility and have an adequate delivery and quality of CO2. However, several unforeseen circumstances complicated this plan: (1) the initially negotiated CO2 supply facility went offline and contracts associated with CO2 supply had to be renegotiated, (2) a UIC Class VI permit proved to be difficult to obtain due to the experimental nature of the project. Both subjects are detailed in separate deliverables attached to this report. The CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and geologic storage in Mississippian carbonate reservoir was sucessully deployed. Approximately 20,000 metric tons of CO2 was injected in the upper part of the Mississippian reservoir to verify CO2 EOR viability in carbonate reservoirs and evaluate a potential of transitioning to geologic CO2 storage through EOR. A total of 1,101 truckloads, 19,803 metric tons—an average of 120 tonnes per day—were delivered over the course of injection that lasted from January 9 to June 21, 2016. After cessation of CO2 injection, the KGS 2-32 well was converted to water injector and continues to operate. CO2 EOR progression in the field was monitored weekly with fluid level, temperature, and production recording and formation fluid composition sampling. It is important to note that normally, CO2 EOR pilots are less efficient than commercial operations due to lack of directional and precise well control, lack of surface facilities for CO2 recycling, and other factors. As a result of this pilot CO2 injection, the observed incremental average oil production increase was ~68% with only ~18% of injected CO2 produced back. Decline curve analysis forecasts of additional cumulative oil produced were 32.44M STB to the end of 2027. Wellington Mississippian pilot efficiency by the end of forecast calculations is 11 MCF per barrel of produced oil. Using 32M STB oil production and $1,964,063 cost of CO2, CO2 EOR cost per barrel of oil production is ~$60. Simple but robust monitoring technologies proved to be very efficient in detecting and locating CO2. High CO2 reservoir retentions with low yields within an actively producing field could help to estimate real-world risks of CO2 geological storage for future projects. The Wellington Field CO2 EOR was executed in a controlled environment with high efficiency. This case study proves that CO2 EOR could be successfully applied in Kansas carbonate reservoirs if CO2 sources and associated infrastructure are available. Recent developments in unconventional resources development in Mid-Continent USA and associated large volume disposal of backflow water and the resulting seismic activity have brought more focus and attention to the Arbuckle Group in southern Kansas. Despite the commercial interest, limited essential information about reservoir properties and structural elements has impeded the management and regulation of disposal, an issue brought to the forefront by recent seismicity in and near areas of large volumes and rates of brine disposal. The Kansas Geological Survey (KGS) collected, compiled, and analyzed available data, including well logs, core data, step rate tests, drill stem tests, 2-D and 3-D seismic data, water level measurements, and others types of data. Several exploratory wells were drilled and core was collected and modern suites of logs were analyzed. Reservoir properties were populated into several site-specific geological models. The geological models illustrate the highly heterogeneous nature of the Arbuckle Group. Vertical and horizontal variability results in several distinct hydro-stratigraphic units that are the result of both depositional and diagenetic processes. During the course of this project, it has been demonstrated that advanced seismic interpretation methods can be used successfully for characterization of the Mississippian reservoir and Arbuckle saline aquifer. Analysis of post-stack 3-D seismic data at the Mississippian reservoir showed the response of a gradational velocity transition. Pre-stack gather analysis showed that porosity zones of the Mississippian and Arbuckle reservoirs exhibit characteristic amplitude versus offset (AVO) response. Simultaneous AVO inversion estimated P- and S-impedances. The 3-D survey gather azimuthal anisotropy analysis (AVAZ) provided information about the fault and fracture network and showed good agreement to the regional stress field and well data. Mississippian reservoir porosity and fracture predictions agreed well with the observed mobility of injected CO2 in KGS well 2-32. Fluid substitution modeling predicted acoustic impedance reduction in the Mississippian carbonate reservoir introduced by the presence of CO2. Seismicity in the United States midcontinent has increased by orders of magnitude over the past decade. Spatiotemporal correlations of seismicity to wastewater injection operations have suggested that injection-related pore fluid pressure increases are inducing the earthquakes. In this investigation, we examine earthquake occurrence in southern Kansas and northern Oklahoma and its relation to the change in pore pressure. The main source of data comes from the Wellington Array in the Wellington oil field, in Sumner County, Kansas, which has monitored for earthquakes in central Sumner County, Kansas, since early 2015. The seismometer array was established to monitor CO2 injection operations at Wellington Field. Although no seismicity was detected in association with the spring 2016 Mississippian CO2 injection, the array has recorded more than 2,500 earthquakes in the region and is providing valuable understanding to induced seismicity. A catalog of earthquakes was built from this data and was analyzed for spatial and temporal changes, stress information, and anisotropy information. The region of seismic concern has been shown to be expanding through use of the Wellington earthquake catalog, which has revealed a northward progression of earthquake activity reaching the metropolitan area of Wichita. The stress orientation was also calculated from this earthquake catalog through focal mechanism inversion. The calculated stress orientation was confirmed through comparison to other stress measurements from well data and previous earthquake studies in the region. With this knowledge of the stress orientation, the anisotropy in the basement could be understood. This allowed for the anisotropy measurements to be correlated to pore pressure increases. The increase in pore pressure was monitored through time-lapse shear-wave anisotropy analysis. Since the onset of the observation period in 2010, the orientation of the fast shear wave has rotated 90°, indicating a change associated with critical pore pressure build up. The time delay between fast and slow shear wave arrivals has increased, indicating a corresponding increase in anisotropy induced by pore pressure rise. In-situ near-basement fluid pressure measurements corroborate the continuous pore pressure increase revealed by the shear-wave anisotropy analysis over the earthquake monitoring period. This research is the first to identify a change in pore fluid pressure in the basement using seismological data and it was recently published in the AAAS journal Science Advances (Nolte et al., 2017). The shear-wave splitting analysis is a novel application of the technique, which can be used in other regions to identify an increase in pore pressure. This increasing pore fluid pressure has become more regionally extensive as earthquakes are occurring in southern Kansas, where they previously were absent. These monitoring techniques and analyses provide new insight into mitigating induced seismicity’s impact on society.},
doi = {10.2172/1420310},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Dec 31 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Sun Dec 31 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

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