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Title: Experimental evidence of low-density liquid water upon rapid decompression

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Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
Grant/Contract Number:
NA0001974; AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 115; Journal Issue: 9; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2018-03-19 17:38:03; Journal ID: ISSN 0027-8424
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

Lin, Chuanlong, Smith, Jesse S., Sinogeikin, Stanislav V., and Shen, Guoyin. Experimental evidence of low-density liquid water upon rapid decompression. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1073/pnas.1716310115.
Lin, Chuanlong, Smith, Jesse S., Sinogeikin, Stanislav V., & Shen, Guoyin. Experimental evidence of low-density liquid water upon rapid decompression. United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.1716310115.
Lin, Chuanlong, Smith, Jesse S., Sinogeikin, Stanislav V., and Shen, Guoyin. 2018. "Experimental evidence of low-density liquid water upon rapid decompression". United States. doi:10.1073/pnas.1716310115.
title = {Experimental evidence of low-density liquid water upon rapid decompression},
author = {Lin, Chuanlong and Smith, Jesse S. and Sinogeikin, Stanislav V. and Shen, Guoyin},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1073/pnas.1716310115},
journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
number = 9,
volume = 115,
place = {United States},
year = 2018,
month = 2

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on August 27, 2018
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  • Solid/liquid phase-change heat transfer around cylinders occurs in many systems including latent-heat thermal-energy storage systems. In such systems, interactions of the heat transfer around the cylinders is often observed. Although several studies have reported on the heat transfer around a single cylinder and two or more cylinders, there have been no systematic studies to examine the effect of initial water superheat for the solidification and the effect of the surface temperature of the cylinders for the melting on the heat transfer. Therefore, in the present study, systematic experiments have been carried out to examine the effects of the parameters mentionedmore » above and the density inversion of water on the solid/liquid phase-change heat transfer using a single and two horizontal, vertically spaced cylinders in a rectangular enclosure.« less
  • This study investigated the mortality of and injury to juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha exposed to simulated pressure changes associated with passage through a large Kaplan hydropower turbine. Mortality and injury varied depending on whether a fish was carrying a transmitter, the method of transmitter implantation, the depth of acclimation, and the size of the fish. Juvenile Chinook salmon implanted with radio transmitters were more likely than those without to die or sustain injuries during simulated turbine passage. Gastric transmitter implantation resulted in higher rates of injury and mortality than surgical implantation. Mortality and injury increased with increasing pressure ofmore » acclimation. Injuries were more common in subyearling fish than in yearling fish. Gas emboli in the gills and internal hemorrhaging were the major causes of mortality. Rupture of the swim bladder and emphysema in the fins were also common. This research makes clear that the exposure of juvenile Chinook salmon bearing radiotelemetry transmitters to simulated turbine pressures with a nadir of 8-19 kPa can result in barotrauma, leading to immediate or delayed mortality. The study also identified sublethal barotrauma injuries that may increase susceptibility to predation. These findings have significant implications for many studies that use telemetry devices to estimate the survival and behavior of juvenile salmon as they pass through large Kaplan turbines typical of those within the Columbia River hydropower system. Our results indicate that estimates of turbine passage survival for juvenile Chinook salmon obtained with radiotelemetry devices may be negatively biased.« less
  • Fish passing downstream through hydroelectric facilities may pass through hydroturbines where they experience a rapid decrease in barometric pressure as they pass by turbine blades, which can lead to barotraumas including swim bladder rupture, exopthalmia, emboli, and hemorrhaging. In juvenile Chinook salmon, the main mechanism for injury is thought to be expansion of existing gases (particularly those present in the swim bladder) and the rupture of the swim bladder ultimately leading to exopthalmia, emboli and hemorrhaging. In fish that lack a swim bladder, such as lamprey, the rate and severity of barotraumas due to rapid decompression may be reduced however;more » this has yet to be extensively studied. Another mechanism for barotrauma can be gases coming out of solution and the rate of this occurrence may vary among species. In this study, juvenile brook and Pacific lamprey acclimated to 146.2 kPa (equivalent to a depth of 4.6 m) were subjected to rapid (<1 sec; brook lamprey only) or sustained decompression (17 minutes) to a very low pressure (13.8 kPa) using a protocol previously applied to juvenile Chinook salmon. No mortality or evidence of barotraumas, as indicated by the presence of hemorrhages, emboli or exopthalmia, were observed during rapid or sustained decompression, nor following recovery for up to 120 h following sustained decompression. In contrast, mortality or injury would be expected for 97.5% of juvenile Chinook salmon exposed to a similar rapid decompression to these very low pressures. Additionally, juvenile Chinook salmon experiencing sustained decompression died within 7 minutes, accompanied by emboli in the fins and gills and hemorrhaging in the tissues. Thus, juvenile lamprey may not be susceptible to barotraumas associated with hydroturbine passage to the same degree as juvenile salmonids, and management of these species should be tailored to their specific morphological and physiological characteristics.« less