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Title: A Comparison of Maps and Power Spectra Determined from South Pole Telescope and Planck Data

Abstract

We study the consistency of 150 GHz data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and 143 GHz data from the Planck satellite over the patch of sky covered by the SPT-SZ survey. Here, we first visually compare the maps and find that the residuals appear consistent with noise after accounting for differences in angular resolution and filtering. We then calculate (1) the cross-spectrum between two independent halves of SPT data, (2) the cross-spectrum between two independent halves of Planck data, and (3) the cross-spectrum between SPT and Planck data. We find that the three cross-spectra are well fit (PTE = 0.30) by the null hypothesis in which both experiments have measured the same sky map up to a single free calibration parameter—i.e., we find no evidence for systematic errors in either data set. As a by-product, we improve the precision of the SPT calibration by nearly an order of magnitude, from 2.6% to 0.3% in power. Finally, we compare all three cross-spectra to the full-sky Planck power spectrum and find marginal evidence for differences between the power spectra from the SPT-SZ footprint and the full sky. We model these differences as a power law in spherical harmonic multipole number. Themore » best-fit value of this tilt is consistent among the three cross-spectra in the SPT-SZ footprint, implying that the source of this tilt is a sample variance fluctuation in the SPT-SZ region relative to the full sky. Lastly, the consistency of cosmological parameters derived from these data sets is discussed in a companion paper.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8]; ORCiD logo [1];  [9]; ORCiD logo [10];  [11];  [12];  [2]; ORCiD logo [13];  [14];  [15]; ORCiD logo [16];  [15];  [17] more »;  [18];  [2];  [19];  [1];  [17]; ORCiD logo [20];  [21];  [22];  [2];  [1];  [23];  [24]; ORCiD logo [8];  [1];  [25]; ORCiD logo [26];  [27];  [28];  [29];  [30];  [31]; ORCiD logo [32];  [33];  [34]; ORCiD logo [35];  [1] « less
  1. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Kavli Inst. for Cosmological Physics; Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics
  2. Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics
  3. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Kavli Inst. for Cosmological Physics; Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics; Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
  4. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Kavli Inst. for Cosmological Physics; Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). High Energy Physics Division
  5. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Kavli Inst. for Cosmological Physics; Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics; Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). High Energy Physics Division; Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics; Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Enrico Fermi Inst.
  6. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Kavli Inst. for Cosmological Physics; Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics; Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). High Energy Physics Division
  7. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  8. McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada). Dept of Physics and McGill Space Inst.
  9. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Kavli Inst. for Cosmological Physics; Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics; California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)
  10. McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada). Dept of Physics and McGill Space Inst.; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics
  11. McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada). Dept of Physics and McGill Space Inst.; Canadian Inst. for Advanced Research, Toronto, ON (Canada). CIFAR Program in Cosmology and Gravity
  12. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Dept. of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences
  13. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; European Southern Observatory, Garching (Germany)
  14. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Dept. of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences; Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Physics
  15. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics
  16. McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada). Dept of Physics and McGill Space Inst.; Canadian Inst. for Advanced Research, Toronto, ON (Canada). CIFAR Program in Cosmology and Gravity; Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Astronomy Dept.; Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics
  17. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)
  18. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Kavli Inst. for Cosmological Physics; Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics; Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Kavli Inst. for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology
  19. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Physics Division
  20. Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Steward Observatory
  21. Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics
  22. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Kavli Inst. for Cosmological Physics; Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics; Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics; Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Enrico Fermi Inst.
  23. Ludwig Maximilian Univ., Munich (Germany). Faculty of Physics
  24. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Kavli Inst. for Cosmological Physics; Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics; Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada). Dunlap Inst. for Astronomy & Astrophysics
  25. Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Physics
  26. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Univ. of Melbourne (Australia). School of Physics
  27. Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Center for Education and Research in Cosmology and Astrophysics, Dept. of Physics
  28. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Dept. of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences; Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Center for Education and Research in Cosmology and Astrophysics, Dept. of Physics
  29. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Kavli Inst. for Cosmological Physics; Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Enrico Fermi Inst.; School of the Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States). Liberal Arts Dept.
  30. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Kavli Inst. for Cosmological Physics; Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Astronomy and Astrophysics; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics
  31. Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Center for Education and Research in Cosmology and Astrophysics, Dept. of Physics; California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States). Jet Propulsion Lab.
  32. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)
  33. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Kavli Inst. for Cosmological Physics; Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics; Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Kavli Inst. for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology; Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Physics
  34. Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada). Dunlap Inst. for Astronomy & Astrophysics; Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Astronomy & Astrophysics
  35. Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Astronomy; Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; National Science Foundation (NSF); Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation (GBMF); Engineering Research Council of Canada; Australian Research Council (ARC)
OSTI Identifier:
1419974
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515; AC02-06CH11357; AC02-07CH11359; PLR-1248097; PHY-1125897; GBMF 947
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 853; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; cosmic background radiation; methods: data analysis

Citation Formats

Hou, Z., Aylor, K., Benson, B. A., Bleem, L. E., Carlstrom, J. E., Chang, C. L., Cho, H-M., Chown, R., Crawford, T. M., Crites, A. T., de Haan, T., Dobbs, M. A., Everett, W. B., Follin, B., George, E. M., Halverson, N. W., Harrington, N. L., Holder, G. P., Holzapfel, W. L., Hrubes, J. D., Keisler, R., Knox, L., Lee, A. T., Leitch, E. M., Luong-Van, D., Marrone, D. P., McMahon, J. J., Meyer, S. S., Millea, M., Mocanu, L. M., Mohr, J. J., Natoli, T., Omori, Y., Padin, S., Pryke, C., Reichardt, C. L., Ruhl, J. E., Sayre, J. T., Schaffer, K. K., Shirokoff, E., Staniszewski, Z., Stark, A. A., Story, K. T., Vanderlinde, K., Vieira, J. D., and Williamson, R.. A Comparison of Maps and Power Spectra Determined from South Pole Telescope and Planck Data. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aaa3ef.
Hou, Z., Aylor, K., Benson, B. A., Bleem, L. E., Carlstrom, J. E., Chang, C. L., Cho, H-M., Chown, R., Crawford, T. M., Crites, A. T., de Haan, T., Dobbs, M. A., Everett, W. B., Follin, B., George, E. M., Halverson, N. W., Harrington, N. L., Holder, G. P., Holzapfel, W. L., Hrubes, J. D., Keisler, R., Knox, L., Lee, A. T., Leitch, E. M., Luong-Van, D., Marrone, D. P., McMahon, J. J., Meyer, S. S., Millea, M., Mocanu, L. M., Mohr, J. J., Natoli, T., Omori, Y., Padin, S., Pryke, C., Reichardt, C. L., Ruhl, J. E., Sayre, J. T., Schaffer, K. K., Shirokoff, E., Staniszewski, Z., Stark, A. A., Story, K. T., Vanderlinde, K., Vieira, J. D., & Williamson, R.. A Comparison of Maps and Power Spectra Determined from South Pole Telescope and Planck Data. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aaa3ef.
Hou, Z., Aylor, K., Benson, B. A., Bleem, L. E., Carlstrom, J. E., Chang, C. L., Cho, H-M., Chown, R., Crawford, T. M., Crites, A. T., de Haan, T., Dobbs, M. A., Everett, W. B., Follin, B., George, E. M., Halverson, N. W., Harrington, N. L., Holder, G. P., Holzapfel, W. L., Hrubes, J. D., Keisler, R., Knox, L., Lee, A. T., Leitch, E. M., Luong-Van, D., Marrone, D. P., McMahon, J. J., Meyer, S. S., Millea, M., Mocanu, L. M., Mohr, J. J., Natoli, T., Omori, Y., Padin, S., Pryke, C., Reichardt, C. L., Ruhl, J. E., Sayre, J. T., Schaffer, K. K., Shirokoff, E., Staniszewski, Z., Stark, A. A., Story, K. T., Vanderlinde, K., Vieira, J. D., and Williamson, R.. 2018. "A Comparison of Maps and Power Spectra Determined from South Pole Telescope and Planck Data". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aaa3ef.
@article{osti_1419974,
title = {A Comparison of Maps and Power Spectra Determined from South Pole Telescope and Planck Data},
author = {Hou, Z. and Aylor, K. and Benson, B. A. and Bleem, L. E. and Carlstrom, J. E. and Chang, C. L. and Cho, H-M. and Chown, R. and Crawford, T. M. and Crites, A. T. and de Haan, T. and Dobbs, M. A. and Everett, W. B. and Follin, B. and George, E. M. and Halverson, N. W. and Harrington, N. L. and Holder, G. P. and Holzapfel, W. L. and Hrubes, J. D. and Keisler, R. and Knox, L. and Lee, A. T. and Leitch, E. M. and Luong-Van, D. and Marrone, D. P. and McMahon, J. J. and Meyer, S. S. and Millea, M. and Mocanu, L. M. and Mohr, J. J. and Natoli, T. and Omori, Y. and Padin, S. and Pryke, C. and Reichardt, C. L. and Ruhl, J. E. and Sayre, J. T. and Schaffer, K. K. and Shirokoff, E. and Staniszewski, Z. and Stark, A. A. and Story, K. T. and Vanderlinde, K. and Vieira, J. D. and Williamson, R.},
abstractNote = {We study the consistency of 150 GHz data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and 143 GHz data from the Planck satellite over the patch of sky covered by the SPT-SZ survey. Here, we first visually compare the maps and find that the residuals appear consistent with noise after accounting for differences in angular resolution and filtering. We then calculate (1) the cross-spectrum between two independent halves of SPT data, (2) the cross-spectrum between two independent halves of Planck data, and (3) the cross-spectrum between SPT and Planck data. We find that the three cross-spectra are well fit (PTE = 0.30) by the null hypothesis in which both experiments have measured the same sky map up to a single free calibration parameter—i.e., we find no evidence for systematic errors in either data set. As a by-product, we improve the precision of the SPT calibration by nearly an order of magnitude, from 2.6% to 0.3% in power. Finally, we compare all three cross-spectra to the full-sky Planck power spectrum and find marginal evidence for differences between the power spectra from the SPT-SZ footprint and the full sky. We model these differences as a power law in spherical harmonic multipole number. The best-fit value of this tilt is consistent among the three cross-spectra in the SPT-SZ footprint, implying that the source of this tilt is a sample variance fluctuation in the SPT-SZ region relative to the full sky. Lastly, the consistency of cosmological parameters derived from these data sets is discussed in a companion paper.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/aaa3ef},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = 1,
volume = 853,
place = {United States},
year = 2018,
month = 1
}

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  • We study the consistency of 150 GHz data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and 143 GHz data from the \textit{Planck} satellite over the 2540more » $$\text{deg}^2$$ patch of sky covered by the SPT-SZ survey. We first visually compare the maps and find that the map residuals appear consistent with noise after we account for differences in angular resolution and filtering. To make a more quantitative comparison, we calculate (1) the cross-spectrum between two independent halves of SPT 150 GHz data, (2) the cross-spectrum between two independent halves of \textit{Planck} 143 GHz data, and (3) the cross-spectrum between SPT 150 GHz and \textit{Planck} 143 GHz data. We find the three cross-spectra are well-fit (PTE = 0.30) by the null hypothesis in which both experiments have measured the same sky map up to a single free parameter characterizing the relative calibration between the two. As a by-product of this analysis, we improve the calibration of SPT data by nearly an order of magnitude, from 2.6\% to 0.3\% in power; the best-fit power calibration factor relative to the most recent published SPT calibration is $$1.0174 \pm 0.0033$$. Finally, we compare all three cross-spectra to the full-sky \textit{Planck} $$143 \times 143$$ power spectrum and find a hint ($$\sim$$1.5$$\sigma$$) for differences in the power spectrum of the SPT-SZ footprint and the full-sky power spectrum, which we model and fit as a power law in the spectrum. The best-fit value of this tilt is consistent between the three cross-spectra in the SPT-SZ footprint, implying that the source of this tilt---assuming it is real---is a sample variance fluctuation in the SPT-SZ region relative to the full sky. Despite the precision of our tests, we find no evidence for systematic errors in either data set. The consistency of cosmological parameters derived from these datasets is discussed in a companion paper.« less
  • The Planck cosmic microwave background temperature data are best fit with a Lambda CDM model that mildly contradicts constraints from other cosmological probes. The South Pole Telescope (SPT) 2540 deg(2) SPT-SZ survey offers measurements on sub-degree angular scales (multipoles 650 <= l <= 2500) with sufficient precision to use as an independent check of the Planck data. Here we build on the recent joint analysis of the SPT-SZ and Planck data in Hou et al. by comparing Lambda CDM parameter estimates using the temperature power spectrum from both data sets in the SPT-SZ survey region. We also restrict the multipolemore » range used in parameter fitting to focus on modes measured well by both SPT and Planck, thereby greatly reducing sample variance as a driver of parameter differences and creating a stringent test for systematic errors. We find no evidence of systematic errors from these tests. When we expand the maximum multipole of SPT data used, we see low-significance shifts in the angular scale of the sound horizon and the physical baryon and cold dark matter densities, with a resulting trend to higher Hubble constant. When we compare SPT and Planck data on the SPT-SZ sky patch to Planck full-sky data but keep the multipole range restricted, we find differences in the parameters n(s) and A(s)e(-2 tau). We perform further checks, investigating instrumental effects and modeling assumptions, and we find no evidence that the effects investigated are responsible for any of the parameter shifts. Taken together, these tests reveal no evidence for systematic errors in SPT or Planck data in the overlapping sky coverage and multipole range and at most weak evidence for a breakdown of Lambda CDM or systematic errors influencing either the Planck data outside the SPT-SZ survey area or the SPT data at l > 2000.« less
  • Here, we present maps of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds from combined South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Planck data. Both instruments are designed to make measurements of the cosmic microwave background but are sensitive to any source of millimeter-wave (mm-wave) emission. The Planck satellite observes in nine mm-wave bands, while the SPT data used in this work were taken with the three-band SPT-SZ camera. The SPT-SZ bands correspond closely to three of the nine Planck bands, namely those centered at 1.4, 2.1, and 3.0 mm. The angular resolution of the Planck data in these bands ranges from 5 tomore » 10 arcmin, while the SPT resolution in these bands ranges from 1.0 to 1.7 arcmin. The combined maps take advantage of the high resolution of the SPT data and the long-timescale stability of the space-based Planck observations to deliver high signal-to-noise and robust brightness measurements on scales from the size of the maps down to ~1 arcmin. In each of the three bands, we first calibrate and color-correct the SPT data to match the Planck data, then we use noise estimates from each instrument and knowledge of each instrument's beam, or point-spread function, to make the inverse-variance-weighted combination of the two instruments' data as a function of angular scale. Furthermore, we create maps assuming a range of underlying emission spectra (for the color correction) and at a range of final resolutions. We perform several consistency tests on the combined maps and estimate the expected noise in measurements of features in the maps. Finally, we compare the maps of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) from this work to maps from the Herschel HERITAGE survey, finding general consistency between the datasets. Furthermore, the broad wavelength coverage provides evidence of different emission mechanisms at work in different environments in the LMC.« less