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Title: ELM elimination with Li powder injection in EAST discharges using the tungsten upper divertor

Abstract

Here, we report the first successful use of lithium (Li) to eliminate edge-localized modes (ELMs) with tungsten divertor plasma-facing components in the EAST device. Li powder injected into the scrape-off layer of the tungsten upper divertor successfully eliminated ELMs for 3–5 s in EAST. The ELM elimination became progressively more effective in consecutive discharges at constant lithium delivery rates, and the divertor D α baseline emission was reduced, both signatures of improved wall conditioning. A modest decrease in stored energy and normalized energy confinement was also observed, but the confinement relative to H98 remained well above 1, extending the previous ELM elimination results via Li injection into the lower carbon divertor in EAST. These results can be compared with recent observations with lithium pellets in ASDEX-Upgrade that failed to mitigate ELMs, highlighting one comparative advantage of continuous powder injection for real-time ELM elimination.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [4];  [5];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [6];  [2]; ORCiD logo [2];  [2]
  1. Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
  2. Chinese Academy of Sciences, Anhui (People's Republic of China)
  3. Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)
  4. Hunan Univ., Changsha (People's Republic of China)
  5. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  6. General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
Contributing Org.:
EAST team
OSTI Identifier:
1419788
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-09CH11466; FC02-04ER54698; FG02-09ER55012; 2013GB114004; 2017YFA0402500; 11405210; 11605246; 11625524
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nuclear Fusion
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 58; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 0029-5515
Publisher:
IOP Science
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; edge localized modes; plasma wall interactions; lithium seeding; edge stability

Citation Formats

Maingi, R., Hu, J. S., Sun, Z., Tritz, K., Zuo, G. Z., Xu, W., Huang, M., Meng, X. C., Canik, J. M., Diallo, A., Lunsford, R., Mansfield, D. K., Osborne, T. H., Gong, X. Z., Wang, Y. F., and Li, Y. Y. ELM elimination with Li powder injection in EAST discharges using the tungsten upper divertor. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1088/1741-4326/aa9e3f.
Maingi, R., Hu, J. S., Sun, Z., Tritz, K., Zuo, G. Z., Xu, W., Huang, M., Meng, X. C., Canik, J. M., Diallo, A., Lunsford, R., Mansfield, D. K., Osborne, T. H., Gong, X. Z., Wang, Y. F., & Li, Y. Y. ELM elimination with Li powder injection in EAST discharges using the tungsten upper divertor. United States. doi:10.1088/1741-4326/aa9e3f.
Maingi, R., Hu, J. S., Sun, Z., Tritz, K., Zuo, G. Z., Xu, W., Huang, M., Meng, X. C., Canik, J. M., Diallo, A., Lunsford, R., Mansfield, D. K., Osborne, T. H., Gong, X. Z., Wang, Y. F., and Li, Y. Y. Fri . "ELM elimination with Li powder injection in EAST discharges using the tungsten upper divertor". United States. doi:10.1088/1741-4326/aa9e3f. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1419788.
@article{osti_1419788,
title = {ELM elimination with Li powder injection in EAST discharges using the tungsten upper divertor},
author = {Maingi, R. and Hu, J. S. and Sun, Z. and Tritz, K. and Zuo, G. Z. and Xu, W. and Huang, M. and Meng, X. C. and Canik, J. M. and Diallo, A. and Lunsford, R. and Mansfield, D. K. and Osborne, T. H. and Gong, X. Z. and Wang, Y. F. and Li, Y. Y.},
abstractNote = {Here, we report the first successful use of lithium (Li) to eliminate edge-localized modes (ELMs) with tungsten divertor plasma-facing components in the EAST device. Li powder injected into the scrape-off layer of the tungsten upper divertor successfully eliminated ELMs for 3–5 s in EAST. The ELM elimination became progressively more effective in consecutive discharges at constant lithium delivery rates, and the divertor D α baseline emission was reduced, both signatures of improved wall conditioning. A modest decrease in stored energy and normalized energy confinement was also observed, but the confinement relative to H98 remained well above 1, extending the previous ELM elimination results via Li injection into the lower carbon divertor in EAST. These results can be compared with recent observations with lithium pellets in ASDEX-Upgrade that failed to mitigate ELMs, highlighting one comparative advantage of continuous powder injection for real-time ELM elimination.},
doi = {10.1088/1741-4326/aa9e3f},
journal = {Nuclear Fusion},
issn = {0029-5515},
number = 2,
volume = 58,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {1}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
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Cited by: 11 works
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Figures / Tables:

Fig. 1. Fig. 1.: (a) reconstructed equilibrium from an upper-single null divertor discharge #70592, with two dropper locations schematically indicated; visible color camera images obtained (b) before and (c) during Li powder injection.The color CCD camera has three sensors, to supply true RGB color (model AT-200Cl, http://www.jai.com/en/products/at-200cl).

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Works referenced in this record:

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    Works referencing / citing this record:

    Quiescent double barrier high-confinement mode plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak
    journal, May 2001

    • Burrell, K. H.; Austin, M. E.; Brennan, D. P.
    • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 8, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.1355981

    ELM mitigation by means of supersonic molecular beam and pellet injection on the EAST superconducting tokamak
    journal, August 2015


    Faraday-effect polarimeter-interferometer system for current density measurement on EAST
    journal, November 2014

    • Liu, H. Q.; Jie, Y. X.; Ding, W. X.
    • Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol. 85, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.4889777

    Edge radial electric field structure and its connections to H-mode confinement in Alcator C-Mod plasmas
    journal, May 2009

    • McDermott, R. M.; Lipschultz, B.; Hughes, J. W.
    • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 16, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.3080721

    Influence of lithium coatings with large-area coverage on EAST plasma performance
    journal, December 2014


    A long-pulse high-confinement plasma regime in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak
    journal, November 2013

    • Li, J.; Guo, H. Y.; Wan, B. N.
    • Nature Physics, Vol. 9, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.1038/nphys2795

    A simple apparatus for the injection of lithium aerosol into the scrape-off layer of fusion research devices
    journal, November 2010


    Impact of wall materials and seeding gases on the pedestal and on core plasma performance
    journal, August 2017


    Edge stability and transport control with resonant magnetic perturbations in collisionless tokamak plasmas
    journal, May 2006

    • Evans, Todd E.; Moyer, Richard A.; Burrell, Keith H.
    • Nature Physics, Vol. 2, Issue 6
    • DOI: 10.1038/nphys312

    The effect of lithium surface coatings on plasma performance in the National Spherical Torus Experiment
    journal, May 2008

    • Kugel, H. W.; Bell, M. G.; Ahn, J. -W.
    • Physics of Plasmas, Vol. 15, Issue 5
    • DOI: 10.1063/1.2906260

    ELM divertor peak energy fluence scaling to ITER with data from JET, MAST and ASDEX upgrade
    journal, August 2017


      Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.