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Title: Imaging, microscopic analysis, and modeling of a CdTe module degraded by heat and light

Abstract

Photoluminescence (PL), electroluminescence (EL), and dark lock-in thermography are collected during stressing of a CdTe module under one-Sun light at an elevated temperature of 100 degrees C. The PL imaging system is simple and economical. The PL images show differing degrees of degradation across the module and are less sensitive to effects of shunting and resistance that appear on the EL images. Regions of varying degradation are chosen based on avoiding pre-existing shunt defects. These regions are evaluated using time-of-flight secondary ion-mass spectrometry and Kelvin probe force microscopy. Reduced PL intensity correlates to increased Cu concentration at the front interface. Numerical modeling and measurements agree that the increased Cu concentration at the junction also correlates to a reduced space charge region.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [1];  [1]
  1. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  2. Bowling Green State Univ., KY (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Solar Energy Technologies Office (EE-4S)
OSTI Identifier:
1419630
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1496354
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5K00-70699
Journal ID: ISSN 0927-0248
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 178; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0927-0248
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; accelerated aging; cadmium telluride; imaging, microscopy; modeling; photoluminescence

Citation Formats

Johnston, Steve, Albin, David, Hacke, Peter, Harvey, Steven P., Moutinho, Helio, Jiang, Chun-Sheng, Xiao, Chuanxiao, Parikh, Anuja, Nardone, Marco, Al-Jassim, Mowafak, and Metzger, Wyatt K. Imaging, microscopic analysis, and modeling of a CdTe module degraded by heat and light. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1016/j.solmat.2017.12.021.
Johnston, Steve, Albin, David, Hacke, Peter, Harvey, Steven P., Moutinho, Helio, Jiang, Chun-Sheng, Xiao, Chuanxiao, Parikh, Anuja, Nardone, Marco, Al-Jassim, Mowafak, & Metzger, Wyatt K. Imaging, microscopic analysis, and modeling of a CdTe module degraded by heat and light. United States. doi:10.1016/j.solmat.2017.12.021.
Johnston, Steve, Albin, David, Hacke, Peter, Harvey, Steven P., Moutinho, Helio, Jiang, Chun-Sheng, Xiao, Chuanxiao, Parikh, Anuja, Nardone, Marco, Al-Jassim, Mowafak, and Metzger, Wyatt K. Fri . "Imaging, microscopic analysis, and modeling of a CdTe module degraded by heat and light". United States. doi:10.1016/j.solmat.2017.12.021. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1419630.
@article{osti_1419630,
title = {Imaging, microscopic analysis, and modeling of a CdTe module degraded by heat and light},
author = {Johnston, Steve and Albin, David and Hacke, Peter and Harvey, Steven P. and Moutinho, Helio and Jiang, Chun-Sheng and Xiao, Chuanxiao and Parikh, Anuja and Nardone, Marco and Al-Jassim, Mowafak and Metzger, Wyatt K.},
abstractNote = {Photoluminescence (PL), electroluminescence (EL), and dark lock-in thermography are collected during stressing of a CdTe module under one-Sun light at an elevated temperature of 100 degrees C. The PL imaging system is simple and economical. The PL images show differing degrees of degradation across the module and are less sensitive to effects of shunting and resistance that appear on the EL images. Regions of varying degradation are chosen based on avoiding pre-existing shunt defects. These regions are evaluated using time-of-flight secondary ion-mass spectrometry and Kelvin probe force microscopy. Reduced PL intensity correlates to increased Cu concentration at the front interface. Numerical modeling and measurements agree that the increased Cu concentration at the junction also correlates to a reduced space charge region.},
doi = {10.1016/j.solmat.2017.12.021},
journal = {Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells},
issn = {0927-0248},
number = C,
volume = 178,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {1}
}

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Figures / Tables:

Fig. 1 Fig. 1: Pre-stress images of the CdTe module show (a) PL, (b) EL, and (c) forward-bias DLIT. Post-stress images of the CdTe module show (d) PL, (e) EL, and (f) DLIT. Circles (green for least degraded and red for most degraded) mark regions of interest away from shunts, where PLmore » imaging shows various degrees of degradation.« less

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Figures/Tables have been extracted from DOE-funded journal article accepted manuscripts.