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Title: Estimation of U.S. refinery water consumption and allocation to refinery products

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Journal Article: Published Article
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Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2018-02-02 21:23:09; Journal ID: ISSN 0016-2361
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United Kingdom

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Sun, Pingping, Elgowainy, Amgad, Wang, Michael, Han, Jeongwoo, and Henderson, Robert J. Estimation of U.S. refinery water consumption and allocation to refinery products. United Kingdom: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2017.07.089.
Sun, Pingping, Elgowainy, Amgad, Wang, Michael, Han, Jeongwoo, & Henderson, Robert J. Estimation of U.S. refinery water consumption and allocation to refinery products. United Kingdom. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2017.07.089.
Sun, Pingping, Elgowainy, Amgad, Wang, Michael, Han, Jeongwoo, and Henderson, Robert J. 2018. "Estimation of U.S. refinery water consumption and allocation to refinery products". United Kingdom. doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2017.07.089.
title = {Estimation of U.S. refinery water consumption and allocation to refinery products},
author = {Sun, Pingping and Elgowainy, Amgad and Wang, Michael and Han, Jeongwoo and Henderson, Robert J.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1016/j.fuel.2017.07.089},
journal = {Fuel},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = 2018,
month = 2

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Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1016/j.fuel.2017.07.089

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  • This paper carries out a comprehensive materials and energy audit for the fabrication of steels and components of petroleum refineries and proposes heat treatment and fabrication strategies which result in both energy and resource conservation. A particular refinery equipment production and steel plant in the Soviet Union is used to illustrate these strategies and as the basis for a cost benefit analysis. Savings in terms of rubles are broken down for operating, production and energy costs for the plant.
  • Consider a stratified population with L strata, so that a Poisson random variable is associated with each stratum. The parameter associated with the hth stratum is theta/sub h/, h = 1, 2, ..., L. Let h/ be the known proportion of the population in the hth stratum, h = 1, 2, ..., L. The authors want to estimate the parameter theta = summation from h = 1 to L h/theta/sub h/. We assume that prior information is available on theta/sub h/ and that it can be expressed in terms of a gamma distribution with parameters ..cap alpha../sub h/more » and ..beta../sub h/, h = 1, 2, ..., L. We also assume that the prior distributions are independent. Using squared error loss function, a Bayes allocation of total sample size with a cost constraint is given. The Bayes estimate using the Bayes allocation is shown to have an adjusted mean square error which is strictly less than the adjusted mean square error of the classical estimate using the classical allocation.« less
  • The Sudanese economy has been characterized in recent years by severe energy shortages which have affected all economic activity. More than 94% of the commercial energy is imported and the level of such imports is seriously limited by the current foreign exchange crisis. However, the problem is not just one of foreign exchange; there is also the problem of utilization of resources to avoid bottleneck problems of supply. The allocation of petroleum products in Sudan has had a severe effect on all aspects of economic life. The aim of this paper is to highlight the problem and to build amore » model to optimize the distribution of petroleum products in order to achieve at least a minimal supply in all regions. A large linear programming model has been developed and the solution indicates that current facilities should be able to satisfy 96% of the 1986 demand, about 30% more than the actual supply. Furthermore, with a little investment in storage facilities and extra trucks, the supply could satisfy total demand in the immediate future.« less
  • Studies to evaluate the energy and emission impacts of vehicle/fuel systems have to address allocation of the energy use and emissions associated with petroleum refineries to various petroleum products because refineries produce multiple products. The allocation is needed in evaluating energy and emission effects of individual transportation fuels. Allocation methods used so far for petroleum-based fuels (e.g., gasoline, diesel, and liquefied petroleum gas [LPG]) are based primarily on mass, energy content, or market value shares of individual fuels from a given refinery. The aggregate approach at the refinery level is unable to account for the energy use and emission differencesmore » associated with producing individual fuels at the next sub-level: individual refining processes within a refinery. The approach ignores the fact that different refinery products go through different processes within a refinery. Allocation at the subprocess level (i.e., the refining process level) instead of at the aggregate process level (i.e., the refinery level) is advocated by the International Standard Organization. In this study, we seek a means of allocating total refinery energy use among various refinery products at the level of individual refinery processes. We present a petroleum refinery-process-based approach to allocating energy use in a petroleum refinery to petroleum refinery products according to mass, energy content, and market value share of final and intermediate petroleum products as they flow through refining processes within a refinery. The results from this study reveal that product-specific energy use based on the refinery process-level allocation differs considerably from that based on the refinery-level allocation. We calculated well-to-pump total energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for gasoline, diesel, LPG, and naphtha with the refinery process-based allocation approach. For gasoline, the efficiency estimated from the refinery-level allocation underestimates gasoline energy use, relative to the process-level based gasoline efficiency. For diesel fuel, the well-to-pump energy use for the process-level allocations with the mass- and energy-content-based weighting factors is smaller than that predicted with the refinery-level allocations. However, the process-level allocation with the market-value-based weighting factors has results very close to those obtained by using the refinery-level allocations. For LPG, the refinery-level allocation significantly overestimates LPG energy use. For naphtha, the refinery-level allocation overestimates naphtha energy use. The GHG emission patterns for each of the fuels are similar to those of energy use.We presented a refining-process-level-based method that can be used to allocate energy use of individual refining processes to refinery products. The process-level-based method captures process-dependent characteristics of fuel production within a petroleum refinery. The method starts with the mass and energy flow chart of a refinery, tracks energy use by individual refining processes, and distributes energy use of a given refining process to products from the process. In allocating energy use to refinery products, the allocation method could rely on product mass, product energy contents, or product market values as weighting factors. While the mass- and energy-content-based allocation methods provide an engineering perspective of energy allocation within a refinery, the market-value-ased allocation method provides an economic perspective. The results from this study show that energy allocations at the aggregate refinery level and at the refining process level could make a difference in evaluating the energy use and emissions associated with individual petroleum products. Furthermore, for the refining-process-level allocation method, use of mass -- energy content- or market value share-based weighting factors could lead to different results for diesel fuels, LPG, and naphtha. We suggest that, when possible, energy use allocations should be made at the lowest subprocess level -- a confirmation of the recommendation by the nternational Standard Organization for life cycle analyses.« less