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Title: Investigating the Linear Dependence of Direct and Indirect Radiative Forcing on Emission of Carbonaceous Aerosols in a Global Climate Model

ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana IL USA
  2. Atmospheric Sciences and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA
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Sponsoring Org.:
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Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
Additional Journal Information:
Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2018-02-02 15:17:29; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-897X
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

Chen, Yanju, Wang, Hailong, Singh, Balwinder, Ma, Po-Lun, Rasch, Philip J., and Bond, Tami C. Investigating the Linear Dependence of Direct and Indirect Radiative Forcing on Emission of Carbonaceous Aerosols in a Global Climate Model. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1002/2017JD027244.
Chen, Yanju, Wang, Hailong, Singh, Balwinder, Ma, Po-Lun, Rasch, Philip J., & Bond, Tami C. Investigating the Linear Dependence of Direct and Indirect Radiative Forcing on Emission of Carbonaceous Aerosols in a Global Climate Model. United States. doi:10.1002/2017JD027244.
Chen, Yanju, Wang, Hailong, Singh, Balwinder, Ma, Po-Lun, Rasch, Philip J., and Bond, Tami C. 2018. "Investigating the Linear Dependence of Direct and Indirect Radiative Forcing on Emission of Carbonaceous Aerosols in a Global Climate Model". United States. doi:10.1002/2017JD027244.
title = {Investigating the Linear Dependence of Direct and Indirect Radiative Forcing on Emission of Carbonaceous Aerosols in a Global Climate Model},
author = {Chen, Yanju and Wang, Hailong and Singh, Balwinder and Ma, Po-Lun and Rasch, Philip J. and Bond, Tami C.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1002/2017JD027244},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2018,
month = 2

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on February 2, 2019
Publisher's Accepted Manuscript

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  • Recent improvements to many global climate models include detailed, prognostic aerosol calculations intended to better reproduce the observed climate. However, the trace gas and aerosol fields are treated at the grid-cell scale with no attempt to account for sub-grid impacts on the aerosol fields. This paper begins to quantify the error introduced by the neglected sub-grid variability for the shortwave aerosol radiative forcing for a representative climate model grid spacing of 75 km. An analysis of the value added in downscaling aerosol fields is also presented to give context to the WRF-Chem simulations used for the sub-grid analysis. We foundmore » that 1) the impact of neglected sub-grid variability on the aerosol radiative forcing is strongest in regions of complex topography and complicated flow patterns, and 2) scale-induced differences in emissions contribute strongly to the impact of neglected sub-grid processes on the aerosol radiative forcing. The two of these effects together, when simulated at 75 km vs. 3 km in WRF-Chem, result in an average daytime mean bias of over 30% error in top-of-atmosphere shortwave aerosol radiative forcing for a large percentage of central Mexico during the MILAGRO field campaign.« less
  • The authors have decomposed the anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing into direct contributions from each aerosol species to the planetary energy balance through absorption and scattering of solar radiation, indirect effects of anthropogenic aerosol on solar and infrared radiation through droplet and crystal nucleation on aerosol, and semidirect effects through the influence of solar absorption on the distribution of clouds. A three-mode representation of the aerosol in version 5.1 of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5.1) yields global annual mean radiative forcing estimates for each of these forcing mechanisms that are within 0.1 W m–2 of estimates using a more complex seven-modemore » representation that distinguishes between fresh and aged black carbon and primary organic matter. Simulating fresh black carbon particles separately from internally mixed accumulation mode particles is found to be important only near fossil fuel sources. In addition to the usual large indirect effect on solar radiation, this study finds an unexpectedly large positive longwave indirect effect (because of enhanced cirrus produced by homogenous nucleation of ice crystals on anthropogenic sulfate), small shortwave and longwave semidirect effects, and a small direct effect (because of cancelation and interactions of direct effects of black carbon and sulfate). Differences between the threemode and seven-mode versions are significantly larger (up to 0.2 W m–2) when the hygroscopicity of primary organic matter is decreased from 0.1 to 0 and transfer of the primary carbonaceous aerosol to the accumulation mode in the seven-mode version requires more hygroscopic material coating the primary particles. Radiative forcing by cloudborne anthropogenic black carbon is only 20.07 W m–2.« less
  • We present a series of regional climate model simulations aimed at assessing the radiative forcing and surface climatic effects of anthropogenic sulfate and fossil fuel soot over east Asia. The simulations are carried out with a coupled regional climate-chemistry/aerosol model for the 5-year period of 1993-1997 using published estimates of sulfur emissions for the period. Anthropogenic sulfate induces a negative radiative forcing spatially varying from -1 to -8 W/m2 in the winter to -1 to -15 W/m2 in the summer, with maxima over the Sichan Basin of southwest China and over some areas of east and northeast China. This forcingmore » induces a surface cooling in the range of -0.1 to -0.7 K. Fossil fuel soot exerts a positive atmospheric radiative forcing of 0.5 to 2 W/m2 and enhances the surface cooling by a few tenths of K due to increased surface shielding from solar radiation. Doubling of sulfur emissions induces a substantial increase in radiative forcing (up to -7 to -8 W/m2) and associated surface cooling. With doubled sulfur emissions, the surface cooling exceeds -1 K and is statistically significant at the 90% confidence level over various areas of China. The aerosol forcing and surface cooling tend to inhibit precipitation over the region, although this effect is relatively small in the simulations. Some features of the simulated aerosol-induced cooling are consistent with temperature trends observed in recent decades over different regions of China.« less
  • High temporal resolution measurements of black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) covering the time period of 1956–2006 in an ice core over the southeastern Tibetan Plateau show a distinct seasonal dependence of BC and OC with higher respective concentrations but a lower OC / BC ratio in the non-monsoon season than during the summer monsoon. We use a global aerosol-climate model, in which BC emitted from different source regions can be explicitly tracked, to quantify BC source–receptor relationships between four Asian source regions and the southeastern Tibetan Plateau as a receptor. The model results show that South Asia hasmore » the largest contribution to the present-day (1996–2005) mean BC deposition at the ice-core drilling site during the non-monsoon season (October to May) (81%) and all year round (74%), followed by East Asia (14% to the non-monsoon mean and 21% to the annual mean). The ice-core record also indicates stable and relatively low BC and OC deposition fluxes from the late 1950s to 1980, followed by an overall increase to recent years. This trend is consistent with the BC and OC emission inventories and the fuel consumption of South Asia (as the primary contributor to annual mean BC deposition). Moreover, the increasing trend of the OC / BC ratio since the early 1990s indicates a growing contribution of coal combustion and/or biomass burning to the emissions. The estimated radiative forcing induced by BC and OC impurities in snow has increased since 1980, suggesting an increasing potential influence of carbonaceous aerosols on the Tibetan glacier melting and the availability of water resources in the surrounding regions. Our study indicates that more attention to OC is merited because of its non-negligible light absorption and the recent rapid increases evident in the ice-core record.« less
  • The global source–receptor relationships of sulfate concentrations, and direct and indirect radiative forcing (DRF and IRF) from 16 regions/sectors for years 2010–2014 are examined in this study through utilizing a sulfur source-tagging capability implemented in the Community Earth System Model (CESM) with winds nudged to reanalysis data. Sulfate concentrations are mostly contributed by local emissions in regions with high emissions, while over regions with relatively low SO 2 emissions, the near-surface sulfate concentrations are primarily attributed to non-local sources from long-range transport. Regional source efficiencies of sulfate concentrations are higher over regions with dry atmospheric conditions and less export, suggestingmore » that lifetime of aerosols, together with regional export, is important in determining regional air quality. The simulated global total sulfate DRF is –0.42 W m –2, with –0.31 W m –2 contributed by anthropogenic sulfate and –0.11 W m –2 contributed by natural sulfate, relative to a state with no sulfur emissions. In the Southern Hemisphere tropics, dimethyl sulfide (DMS) contributes 17–84 % to the total DRF. East Asia has the largest contribution of 20–30 % over the Northern Hemisphere mid- and high latitudes. A 20 % perturbation of sulfate and its precursor emissions gives a sulfate incremental IRF of –0.44 W m –2. DMS has the largest contribution, explaining –0.23 W m –2 of the global sulfate incremental IRF. Here, incremental IRF over regions in the Southern Hemisphere with low background aerosols is more sensitive to emission perturbation than that over the polluted Northern Hemisphere.« less