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Title: A review of micromirror arrays

Abstract

The aim of this article is to provide a review of micromirror array (MMA) technologies (2631 MMA research papers and patents were reviewed for this effort). The performance capabilities of 277 MMA designs from 49 companies and 23 academic research groups are categorized and compared. The designs are categorized according to (i) their array’s dimension (e.g., 2D arrays consisting of mirrors that cover a surface, 1D arrays consisting of mirrors in a row, and 0D arrays consisting of only a single mirror), (ii) the nature of the surface of their mirrors (e.g., continuous or discrete), (iii) what combination of tip, tilt, and/or piston degrees of freedom (DOFs) they achieve, and (iv) how they are actuated. Standardized performance metrics that can be systematically applied to every MMA design (e.g., mirror area, fill factor, pitch, range of motion, maximum acceleration, actuator energy density, and number of uncontrolled DOFs) are defined and plotted for existing designs to enable their fair comparison. Theoretical bounds on what is physically possible for MMAs to achieve are also derived and depicted in these plots to highlight the amount of performance improvement that remains to be achieved by future designs and guidelines are provided to aid in themore » development of these future designs.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1]
  1. Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
  2. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Materials Engineering Division
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1418903
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-729264
Journal ID: ISSN 0141-6359
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Precision Engineering
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 51; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0141-6359
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; Micromirrors; Arrays of Mirrors; MEMS; Micro-reflectors; Flexures; Micro-actuators

Citation Formats

Song, Yuanping, Panas, Robert M., and Hopkins, Jonathan B. A review of micromirror arrays. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.precisioneng.2017.08.012.
Song, Yuanping, Panas, Robert M., & Hopkins, Jonathan B. A review of micromirror arrays. United States. doi:10.1016/j.precisioneng.2017.08.012.
Song, Yuanping, Panas, Robert M., and Hopkins, Jonathan B. 2017. "A review of micromirror arrays". United States. doi:10.1016/j.precisioneng.2017.08.012.
@article{osti_1418903,
title = {A review of micromirror arrays},
author = {Song, Yuanping and Panas, Robert M. and Hopkins, Jonathan B.},
abstractNote = {The aim of this article is to provide a review of micromirror array (MMA) technologies (2631 MMA research papers and patents were reviewed for this effort). The performance capabilities of 277 MMA designs from 49 companies and 23 academic research groups are categorized and compared. The designs are categorized according to (i) their array’s dimension (e.g., 2D arrays consisting of mirrors that cover a surface, 1D arrays consisting of mirrors in a row, and 0D arrays consisting of only a single mirror), (ii) the nature of the surface of their mirrors (e.g., continuous or discrete), (iii) what combination of tip, tilt, and/or piston degrees of freedom (DOFs) they achieve, and (iv) how they are actuated. Standardized performance metrics that can be systematically applied to every MMA design (e.g., mirror area, fill factor, pitch, range of motion, maximum acceleration, actuator energy density, and number of uncontrolled DOFs) are defined and plotted for existing designs to enable their fair comparison. Theoretical bounds on what is physically possible for MMAs to achieve are also derived and depicted in these plots to highlight the amount of performance improvement that remains to be achieved by future designs and guidelines are provided to aid in the development of these future designs.},
doi = {10.1016/j.precisioneng.2017.08.012},
journal = {Precision Engineering},
number = C,
volume = 51,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 8
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
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  • Micromirrors having diameters from a few micrometers to several millimeters have been produced on (100) silicon by wet-chemical etching in KOH:H[sub 2]O. The f/[number sign]'s range from about 2.5 to at least 10. The microroughness of an etched mirror with diameter 550 [mu]m and 9.6-[mu]m sagitta is less than 5 nm and its surface figure is within 0.5 [mu]m of a perfect sphere. Data over a wide range of diameters are presented and a semiempirical model is developed to explain the behavior. The concordance of the normalized etched profiles for all diameter mirrors demonstrates that the etching is dominated bymore » surface reaction rather than diffusion limitation. Design and fabrication schemes are presented for making a wide range of mirror diameters and focal lengths, for both single micromirrors and arrays. The etched depressions can be used as templates for microlenses and as substrates for geodesic waveguide lenses and arrays. Chem-mechanical polishing on the etched structures reduces the edge curvature and produces oblate spheroidal surfaces, both of which should improve geodesic lens behavior. The etched structures can also be used as variable crystal orientation substrates for epitaxial nucleation and various surface analysis studies.« less
  • This paper describes the design, layout, fabrication, and surface characterization of highly optimized surface micromachined micromirror devices. Design considerations and fabrication capabilities are presented. These devices are fabricated in the state-of-the-art, four-level, planarized, ultra-low-stress polysilicon process available at Sandia National Laboratories known as the Sandia Ultra-planar Multi-level MEMS Technology (SUMMiT). This enabling process permits the development of micromirror devices with near-ideal characteristics that have previously been unrealizable in standard three-layer polysilicon processes. The reduced 1 {mu}m minimum feature sizes and 0.1 {mu}m mask resolution make it possible to produce dense wiring patterns and irregularly shaped flexures. Likewise, mirror surfaces canmore » be uniquely distributed and segmented in advanced patterns and often irregular shapes in order to minimize wavefront error across the pupil. The ultra-low-stress polysilicon and planarized upper layer allow designers to make larger and more complex micromirrors of varying shape and surface area within an array while maintaining uniform performance of optical surfaces. Powerful layout functions of the AutoCAD editor simplify the design of advanced micromirror arrays and make it possible to optimize devices according to the capabilities of the fabrication process. Micromirrors fabricated in this process have demonstrated a surface variance across the array from only 2{endash}3 nm to a worst case of roughly 25 nm while boasting active surface areas of 98{percent} or better. Combining the process planarization with a {open_quotes}planarized-by-design{close_quotes} approach will produce micromirror array surfaces that are limited in flatness only by the surface deposition roughness of the structural material. Ultimately, the combination of advanced process and layout capabilities have permitted the fabrication of highly optimized micromirror arrays for adaptive optics. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}« less
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