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Title: Area G Erosion Analysis

ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2]
  1. Los Alamos National Laboratory
  2. Neptune
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Resource Relation:
Conference: P&RA CoP Annual Technical Exchange meeting ; 2017-10-17 - 2017-10-19 ; Albuquerque, New Mexico, United States
Country of Publication:
United States
Earth Sciences; Environmental Protection

Citation Formats

Stauffer, Philip H., Atchley, Adam Lee, Birdsell, Kay Hanson, and Crowell, Kelly. Area G Erosion Analysis. United States: N. p., 2018. Web.
Stauffer, Philip H., Atchley, Adam Lee, Birdsell, Kay Hanson, & Crowell, Kelly. Area G Erosion Analysis. United States.
Stauffer, Philip H., Atchley, Adam Lee, Birdsell, Kay Hanson, and Crowell, Kelly. 2018. "Area G Erosion Analysis". United States. doi:.
title = {Area G Erosion Analysis},
author = {Stauffer, Philip H. and Atchley, Adam Lee and Birdsell, Kay Hanson and Crowell, Kelly},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2018,
month = 1

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  • A simulation model was applied to a small strip mined and reclaimed watershed in central Pennsylvania to evaluate the effectiveness of a holding pond and runoff diversions in controlling erosion and sediment yield. The model predicted the site sediment yield and suggested an optimum holding pond location for different control measure and pond configurations and a standard design storm. Recommendations for reducing the total sediment yield and management of the holding pond are given. The results reflect well the actual conditions observed at the site.
  • Fly ash disposal sites adjacent to fossil fueled generating plants are subject to wind and water erosion which increases the operation and maintenance costs. Gullies and unstable areas in the disposal sites require expensive leveling and filling practices. Test evaluated both warm- and cool-season cover crops established by either sod or seed. Amendments to the ash consisted of composted poultry litter (CPL), soil, soil+CPL, fertilizer and beneficial soil microbes including mycorrhizal fungi. Turf sods (419 Bermuda, Emerald zoysia, and Raleigh St. Augustine) were compared in greenhouse and field studies. Six legumes and 12 grass species were tested in the greenhousemore » as seeded cover crops using similar amendments and raw poultry litter (PL). Legumes grew better with CPL and Boil amendments and grasses grew better on PL and soil amendments possibly due to differences in N requirements and N supply. Cool season crops generally grew faster than warm season species in the greenhouse tests. Amendments should be mixed with the FA to ameliorate the effects of boron and salt toxicity and to increase the water holding capacity. Bermuda sod grew faster than either St, Augustine or Emerald zoysia, but requires more water. A microbial amendment increased dry matter yields of bermuda sod 2 to 3 times after 40 to 60 days over unamended controls. Microbial amendments may be justified on an economic and sustainable basis. A field study is assessing the environmental and cultural requirements to grow a cover crop on an annual basis.« less
  • Relict colluvial boulder deposits provide a source for assessing long-term hillslope erosion rates at Yucca Mountain. Low-altitude stereo aerial photographs provide a base for accurate measurements of the amount of colluvium removed by erosion from these middle-Pleistocene deposits (dated by varnish cation ratios). In this study, two 1:3,000-scale stereo photographs of hillslope deposits on the west side of Yucca Mountain were oriented in an analytical stereo plotter using surveyed ground control points. Then, a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with 2 m spatial resolution covering the entire hillslope was measured from the oriented stereo pair. Next, the hillslope deposits were dividedmore » into upper, middle, and lower groups based on different slope gradients. A best-fit mathematical plane was calculated on the surface of each group using 3D points measured from the stereo photographs, the generic plane equation (ax + by + cz + d = 0), and a least squares adjustment. These planes model the original surface of the deposits before any hillslope erosion took place. Elevations on these planes were subtracted from corresponding hillslope DEM node elevations to calculate the elevation change caused by cumulative erosion since the middle Pleistocene. The total volume of material removed by erosion for each deposit group was calculated by multiplying the elevation changed at each node by the cell size (4 m[sup 2]), and summing all of the resulting cell volumes. The volume lost for the upper, middle, and lower groups was divided by the total area covered by each group to yield the volumetric change per unit area. Dividing these values by cation ratio ages for each group results in vertical ground lowering rate estimates of 0.5 mm/ka, 1.2 mm/ka, and 0.5 mm/ka, respectively.« less
  • This study characterizes debris flows that occurred on July 21 or 22, 1984, on the south hillslope of Jake Ridge, about 6 km east of the crest of Yucca Mountain. The hillslope gradient ranges from 50 degrees at the top to 3 degrees at the base; the hillslope is underlain by Tertiary ash-flow tuff and is mantled by less than 2 m of varnished boundary colluvium. Because aerial stereo photographs were available of Jake Ridge from before the 1984 flows, as well as to map the redistribution of the eroded sediment. The Jake Ridge flows were initiated by a convectivemore » summer storm. Digital elevation models (DEMs) with 2 m spatial resolution, measured from pre-flow and post-flow aerial stereo photographs using an analytical stereo plotter, were used to estimate the volume and distribution of debris affected by the flow. Volumes were calculated by subtracting the pre-flow elevation from the post-flow elevation at each DEM grid node, multiplying the elevation difference by the area of each node, and summing the cubes. Volumetric calculations show that about 3650 m[sup 3] of colluvium were eroded, from the hillslope. Maximum depth of erosion was about 1.2 m. Of the 3650 m[sup 3] eroded, about 10% was deposited on the slope as levees and small lobes, 35 % was deposited near the base of the slope, 40% was deposited in the tributary to Fortymile Wash, and less than 15% entered Fortymile Wash. These results suggest a model for hillslope erosion during dry interpluvial climates: large, but infrequent storms cause localized hillslope stripping that results in tributary/channel aggradation.« less
  • We are analyzing erosion and tritium codeposition for ITER, DIII-D, and other devices with a focus on carbon divertor and metallic wall sputtering, for detached and semi-detached edge plasmas. Carbon chemical-sputtering hydrocarbon-transport is computed in detail using upgraded models for sputtering yields, species, and atomic and molecular processes. For the DIII-D analysis this includes proton impact and dissociative recombination for the full methane and higher hydrocarbon chains. Several mixed material (Si-C doping and Be/C) effects on erosion are examined. A semi-detached reactor plasma regime yields peak net wall erosion rates of {approximately}1.0 (Be), {approximately}0.3 (Fe), and {approximately}0.01 (W) cm/burn-yr, andmore » {approximately}50 cm/burn-yr for a carbon divertor. Net carbon erosion is dominated by chemical sputtering in the {approximately}1-3 eV detached plasma zone. Tritium codeposition in divertor-sputtered redeposited carbon is high ({approximately}10-20 g-T/1000 s ). Silicon and beryllium mixing tends to reduce carbon erosion. Initial hydrocarbon transport calculations for the DIII-D DiMES-73 detached plasma experiment show a broad spectrum of redeposited molecules with {approximately}90% redeposition fraction.« less