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Title: Effect of fractal silver electrodes on charge collection and light distribution in semiconducting organic polymer films

Abstract

Living organisms use fractal structures to optimize material and energy transport across regions of differing size scales. Here we test the effect of fractal silver electrodes on light distribution and charge collection in organic semiconducting polymer films made of P3HT and PCBM. The semiconducting polymers were deposited onto electrochemically grown fractal silver structures (5000 nm × 500 nm; fractal dimension of 1.71) with PEDOT:PSS as hole-selective interlayer. The fractal silver electrodes appear black due to increased horizontal light scattering, which is shown to improve light absorption in the polymer. According to surface photovoltage spectroscopy, fractal silver electrodes outperform the flat electrodes when the BHJ film thickness is large (>400 nm, 0.4 V photovoltage). Photocurrents of up to 200 microamperes cm -2 are generated from the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photoelectrodes under 435 nm LED (10–20 mW cm -2) illumination in acetonitrile solution containing 0.005 M ferrocenium hexafluorophosphate as the electron acceptor. In conclusion, the low IPCE values (0.3–0.7%) are due to slow electron transfer to ferrocenium ion and due to shunting along the large metal–polymer interface. Overall, this work provides an initial assessment of the potential of fractal electrodes for organic photovoltaic cells.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [1]
  1. Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry
  2. Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science
  3. Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States). Dept. of Physics
  4. Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science
  5. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, Dept. of Physics, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Inst.
  6. Univ. of California, Merced, CA (United States). School of Natural Sciences
  7. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Chemical and Materials Sciences Center
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
National Science Foundation (NSF); USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1418490
Grant/Contract Number:  
AR0000289; 933435
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Materials Chemistry. A
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 2; Journal Issue: 39; Journal ID: ISSN 2050-7488
Publisher:
Royal Society of Chemistry
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Citation Formats

Chamousis, Rachel L., Chang, Lilian, Watterson, William J., Montgomery, Rick D., Taylor, Richard P., Moule, Adam J., Shaheen, Sean E., Ilan, Boaz, van de Lagemaat, Jao, and Osterloh, Frank E. Effect of fractal silver electrodes on charge collection and light distribution in semiconducting organic polymer films. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1039/c4ta03204g.
Chamousis, Rachel L., Chang, Lilian, Watterson, William J., Montgomery, Rick D., Taylor, Richard P., Moule, Adam J., Shaheen, Sean E., Ilan, Boaz, van de Lagemaat, Jao, & Osterloh, Frank E. Effect of fractal silver electrodes on charge collection and light distribution in semiconducting organic polymer films. United States. doi:10.1039/c4ta03204g.
Chamousis, Rachel L., Chang, Lilian, Watterson, William J., Montgomery, Rick D., Taylor, Richard P., Moule, Adam J., Shaheen, Sean E., Ilan, Boaz, van de Lagemaat, Jao, and Osterloh, Frank E. Thu . "Effect of fractal silver electrodes on charge collection and light distribution in semiconducting organic polymer films". United States. doi:10.1039/c4ta03204g. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1418490.
@article{osti_1418490,
title = {Effect of fractal silver electrodes on charge collection and light distribution in semiconducting organic polymer films},
author = {Chamousis, Rachel L. and Chang, Lilian and Watterson, William J. and Montgomery, Rick D. and Taylor, Richard P. and Moule, Adam J. and Shaheen, Sean E. and Ilan, Boaz and van de Lagemaat, Jao and Osterloh, Frank E.},
abstractNote = {Living organisms use fractal structures to optimize material and energy transport across regions of differing size scales. Here we test the effect of fractal silver electrodes on light distribution and charge collection in organic semiconducting polymer films made of P3HT and PCBM. The semiconducting polymers were deposited onto electrochemically grown fractal silver structures (5000 nm × 500 nm; fractal dimension of 1.71) with PEDOT:PSS as hole-selective interlayer. The fractal silver electrodes appear black due to increased horizontal light scattering, which is shown to improve light absorption in the polymer. According to surface photovoltage spectroscopy, fractal silver electrodes outperform the flat electrodes when the BHJ film thickness is large (>400 nm, 0.4 V photovoltage). Photocurrents of up to 200 microamperes cm-2 are generated from the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photoelectrodes under 435 nm LED (10–20 mW cm-2) illumination in acetonitrile solution containing 0.005 M ferrocenium hexafluorophosphate as the electron acceptor. In conclusion, the low IPCE values (0.3–0.7%) are due to slow electron transfer to ferrocenium ion and due to shunting along the large metal–polymer interface. Overall, this work provides an initial assessment of the potential of fractal electrodes for organic photovoltaic cells.},
doi = {10.1039/c4ta03204g},
journal = {Journal of Materials Chemistry. A},
number = 39,
volume = 2,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Aug 21 00:00:00 EDT 2014},
month = {Thu Aug 21 00:00:00 EDT 2014}
}

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