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Title: Final Technical Report- Radiation Hard Tight Pitch GaInP SPAD Arrays for High Energy Physics

Abstract

The specialized photodetectors used in high energy physics experiments often need to remain extremely sensitive for years despite radiation induced damage caused by the constant bombardment of high energy particles. To solve this problem, LightSpin Technologies, Inc. in collaboration with Prof. Bradley Cox and the University of Virginia is developing radiation-hard GaInP photodetectors which are projected to be extraordinarily radiation hard, theoretically capable of withstanding a 100,000-fold higher radiation dose than silicon. In this Phase I SBIR project, LightSpin investigated the performance and radiation hardness of fifth generation GaInP SPAD arrays. These fifth generation devices used a new planar processing approach that enables very tight pitch arrays to be produced. High performance devices with SPAD pitches of 11, 15, and 25 μm were successfully demonstrated, which greatly increased the dynamic range and maximum count rate of the devices. High maximum count rates are critical when considering radiation hardness, since radiation damage causes a proportional increase in the dark count rate, causing SPAD arrays with low maximum count rates (large SPAD pitches) to fail. These GaInP SPAD array Photomultiplier Chips™ were irradiated with protons, electrons, and neutrons. Initial irradiation results were disappointing, with the post-irradiation devices exhibiting excessively high dark currents.more » The degradation was traced to surface leakage currents that were largely eliminated through the use of trenches etched around the exterior of the Photomultiplier Chip™ (not between SPAD elements). A second round of irradiations on Photomultiplier Chips™ with trenches proved substantially more successful, with post-irradiation dark currents remaining relatively low, though dark count rates were observed to increase at the highest doses. Preliminary analysis of the post-irradiation devices is promising … many of the irradiated Photomultiplier Chips™ still exhibit good gain characteristics after 1E12/cm 2 – 1E13/cm 2 doses and have apparent dark count rates that are lower than the apparent dark count rates published for irradiation of silicon SPAD arrays (silicon photomultipliers or SiPMs). Some post-irradiation results are still pending because the samples will still too radioactive to be shipped back from the irradiation facility for post-irradiation testing.« less

Authors:
 [1]
  1. LightSpin Technologies, Inc., Endwell, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
LightSpin Technologies, Inc., Endwell, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
OSTI Identifier:
1418160
Report Number(s):
DOE-LightSpin-13785
DOE Contract Number:  
SC0013785
Type / Phase:
SBIR (Phase I)
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
73 NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND RADIATION PHYSICS; 46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; Radiation Tolerance; Avalanche Photodiodes; APDs; Single Photon Avalanche Diodes; SPAD; Photomultiplier Chips

Citation Formats

Harmon, Eric S. Final Technical Report- Radiation Hard Tight Pitch GaInP SPAD Arrays for High Energy Physics. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.2172/1418160.
Harmon, Eric S. Final Technical Report- Radiation Hard Tight Pitch GaInP SPAD Arrays for High Energy Physics. United States. doi:10.2172/1418160.
Harmon, Eric S. Fri . "Final Technical Report- Radiation Hard Tight Pitch GaInP SPAD Arrays for High Energy Physics". United States. doi:10.2172/1418160. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1418160.
@article{osti_1418160,
title = {Final Technical Report- Radiation Hard Tight Pitch GaInP SPAD Arrays for High Energy Physics},
author = {Harmon, Eric S.},
abstractNote = {The specialized photodetectors used in high energy physics experiments often need to remain extremely sensitive for years despite radiation induced damage caused by the constant bombardment of high energy particles. To solve this problem, LightSpin Technologies, Inc. in collaboration with Prof. Bradley Cox and the University of Virginia is developing radiation-hard GaInP photodetectors which are projected to be extraordinarily radiation hard, theoretically capable of withstanding a 100,000-fold higher radiation dose than silicon. In this Phase I SBIR project, LightSpin investigated the performance and radiation hardness of fifth generation GaInP SPAD arrays. These fifth generation devices used a new planar processing approach that enables very tight pitch arrays to be produced. High performance devices with SPAD pitches of 11, 15, and 25 μm were successfully demonstrated, which greatly increased the dynamic range and maximum count rate of the devices. High maximum count rates are critical when considering radiation hardness, since radiation damage causes a proportional increase in the dark count rate, causing SPAD arrays with low maximum count rates (large SPAD pitches) to fail. These GaInP SPAD array Photomultiplier Chips™ were irradiated with protons, electrons, and neutrons. Initial irradiation results were disappointing, with the post-irradiation devices exhibiting excessively high dark currents. The degradation was traced to surface leakage currents that were largely eliminated through the use of trenches etched around the exterior of the Photomultiplier Chip™ (not between SPAD elements). A second round of irradiations on Photomultiplier Chips™ with trenches proved substantially more successful, with post-irradiation dark currents remaining relatively low, though dark count rates were observed to increase at the highest doses. Preliminary analysis of the post-irradiation devices is promising … many of the irradiated Photomultiplier Chips™ still exhibit good gain characteristics after 1E12/cm2 – 1E13/cm2 doses and have apparent dark count rates that are lower than the apparent dark count rates published for irradiation of silicon SPAD arrays (silicon photomultipliers or SiPMs). Some post-irradiation results are still pending because the samples will still too radioactive to be shipped back from the irradiation facility for post-irradiation testing.},
doi = {10.2172/1418160},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Jan 26 00:00:00 EST 2018},
month = {Fri Jan 26 00:00:00 EST 2018}
}

Technical Report:
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