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Title: Identification of Promising Remediation Technologies for Iodine in the UP-1 Operable Unit

Abstract

Iodine-129 (129I) generated at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site during plutonium production was released to the subsurface, resulting in several large, though dilute, plumes in the groundwater, including the plume in the 200-UP-1 operable unit (OU). Because 129I is an uncommon contaminant, relevant remediation experience and scientific literature are limited, though work is under way to better understand the fate and transport of 129I in the environment and the effectiveness of potential remediation technologies. The recent UP-1 Evaluation Plan for Iodine and report on the Conceptual Model of Iodine Behavior in the Subsurface at the Hanford Site provide information on the history of contamination in the 200-UP-1 OU, relevant controlling processes (biological and geochemical), risk, the conceptual site model, and potential remedial options, which provided a foundation for this study. In this study, available information was compiled and used to categorize potential remediation technologies, culminating in a recommendation of promising technologies for further evaluation. Approaches to improve the technical information about promising technologies are also recommended in this study so that a subsequent evaluation of potential remediation alternatives can assess these technologies.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1418096
Report Number(s):
PNNL-26934
830403000
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Citation Formats

Strickland, Christopher E., Johnson, Christian D., Lee, Brady D., Qafoku, Nikolla, Szecsody, James E., Truex, Michael J., and Vermeul, Vincent R.. Identification of Promising Remediation Technologies for Iodine in the UP-1 Operable Unit. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1418096.
Strickland, Christopher E., Johnson, Christian D., Lee, Brady D., Qafoku, Nikolla, Szecsody, James E., Truex, Michael J., & Vermeul, Vincent R.. Identification of Promising Remediation Technologies for Iodine in the UP-1 Operable Unit. United States. doi:10.2172/1418096.
Strickland, Christopher E., Johnson, Christian D., Lee, Brady D., Qafoku, Nikolla, Szecsody, James E., Truex, Michael J., and Vermeul, Vincent R.. 2017. "Identification of Promising Remediation Technologies for Iodine in the UP-1 Operable Unit". United States. doi:10.2172/1418096. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1418096.
@article{osti_1418096,
title = {Identification of Promising Remediation Technologies for Iodine in the UP-1 Operable Unit},
author = {Strickland, Christopher E. and Johnson, Christian D. and Lee, Brady D. and Qafoku, Nikolla and Szecsody, James E. and Truex, Michael J. and Vermeul, Vincent R.},
abstractNote = {Iodine-129 (129I) generated at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site during plutonium production was released to the subsurface, resulting in several large, though dilute, plumes in the groundwater, including the plume in the 200-UP-1 operable unit (OU). Because 129I is an uncommon contaminant, relevant remediation experience and scientific literature are limited, though work is under way to better understand the fate and transport of 129I in the environment and the effectiveness of potential remediation technologies. The recent UP-1 Evaluation Plan for Iodine and report on the Conceptual Model of Iodine Behavior in the Subsurface at the Hanford Site provide information on the history of contamination in the 200-UP-1 OU, relevant controlling processes (biological and geochemical), risk, the conceptual site model, and potential remedial options, which provided a foundation for this study. In this study, available information was compiled and used to categorize potential remediation technologies, culminating in a recommendation of promising technologies for further evaluation. Approaches to improve the technical information about promising technologies are also recommended in this study so that a subsequent evaluation of potential remediation alternatives can assess these technologies.},
doi = {10.2172/1418096},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 9
}

Technical Report:

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  • The laboratory investigation was performed to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing in situ chemical oxidation for remediating the secondary source of groundwater contaminants at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) Site. The study involved trichloroethene (TCE) contaminated media (groundwater, soil, and sludge) from TAN. The effectiveness of the selected oxidant, potassium permanganate (KMn0(sub4)), was evaluated at multiple oxidant and contaminant concentrations. Experiments were performed to determine the oxidant demand of each medium and the rate of TCE oxidation. The experiments were performed under highly controlled conditions (gas-tight reactors, constant 12C temperature). Multiple parameter weremore » monitored over time including MN0(sub 4) and TCE concentrations and pH.« less
  • These appendices support the results and discussion of the laboratory work performed to evaluate the feasibility of in situ chemical oxidation for Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory's (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) which is contained in ORNL/TM-1371 l/Vol. This volume contains Appendices C-E. Appendix C is a compilation of all recorded data and mathematical calculations made to interpret the data. For the Task 3 and Task 4 work, the spreadsheet column definitions are included immediately before the actual spreadsheet pages and are listed as ''Sample Calculations/Column Definitions'' in the table of contents. Appendix D includes the chronological order inmore » which the experiments were conducted and the final project costs through October 1998. Appendix E is a compilation of the monthly progress reports submitted to INEEL during the course of the project.« less
  • This appendix supports the results and discussion of the laboratory work performed to evaluate the feasibility of in situ chemical oxidation for Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory's (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) which is contained in ORNL/TM-13711/V1. This volume contains Appendix F. Appendix F is essentially a photocopy of the ORNL researchers' laboratory notebooks from the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) and the Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory (RMAL).
  • This appendix supports the results and discussion of the laboratory work performed to evaluate the feasibility of in situ chemical oxidation for Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory's (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) which is contained in ORNL/TM-13711/V1. This volume contains Appendix G. Appendix G is a presentation of VOC chromatography data collected during the study. Information on the calibration curves and calibration checks used as well as the sample GC reports themselves are included here. The concentration values presented on the GC reports are calculation using the data from the applicable calibration curve and any necessary dilutions which weremore » made.« less
  • A screening-level evaluation of potential remediation methods for application to the contaminants of concern (COC) in the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site was conducted based on the methods outlined in the Guidance for Conducting Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies under CERCLA Interim Final. The scope of this screening was to identify the most promising remediation methods for use in the more detailed analysis of remediation alternatives that will be conducted as part of the full feasibility study. The screening evaluation was conducted for the primary COC (potential major risk drivers). COC with similar properties were grouped for themore » screening evaluation. The screening evaluation was conducted in two primary steps. The initial screening step evaluated potential remediation methods based on whether they can be effectively applied within the environmental setting of the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit for the specified contaminants. In the second step, potential remediation methods were screened using scoping calculations to estimate the scale of infrastructure, overall quantities of reagents, and conceptual approach for applying the method for each defined grouping of COC. Based on these estimates, each method was screened with respect to effectiveness, implementability, and relative cost categories of the CERCLA feasibility study screening process defined in EPA guidance.« less