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Title: Models and methods for assessing the value of HVDC and MVDC technologies in modern power grids

Abstract

This report reflects the results of U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Grid Modernization project 0074 “Models and methods for assessing the value of HVDC [high-voltage direct current] and MTDC [multi-terminal direct current] technologies in modern power grids.” The work was done by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in cooperation with Mid-Continent Independent System Operator (MISO) and Siemens. The main motivation of this study was to show the benefit of using direct current (DC) systems larger than those in existence today as they overlap with the alternating current (AC) systems. Proper use of their flexibility in terms of active/reactive power control and fast response can provide much-needed services to the grid at the same time as moving large blocks of energy to take advantage of cost diversity. Ultimately, the project’s success will enable decision-makers and investors to make well-informed decisions regarding this use of DC systems. This project showed the technical feasibility of HVDC macrogrid for frequency control and congestion relief in addition to bulk power transfers. Industry-established models for commonly used technologies were employed, along with high-fidelity models for recently developed HVDC converter technologies; like the modular multilevel converters (MMCs), a voltage sourcemore » converters (VSC). Models for General Electric Positive Sequence Load Flow (GE PSLF) and Siemens Power System Simulator (PSS/E), widely used analysis programs, were for the first time adapted to include at the same time both Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) and Eastern Interconnection (EI), the two largest North American interconnections. The high-fidelity models and their control were developed in detail for MMC system and extended to HVDC systems in point-to-point and in three-node multi-terminal configurations. Using a continental-level mixed AC-DC grid model, and using a HVDC macrogrid power flow and transient stability model, the results showed that the HVDC macrogrid relieved congestion and mitigated loop flows in AC networks, and provided up to 24% improvement in frequency responses. These are realistic studies, based on the 2025 heavy summer and EI multi-regional modeling working group (MMWG) 2026 summer peak cases. This work developed high-fidelity models and simulation algorithms to understand the dynamics of MMC. The developed models and simulation algorithms are up to 25 times faster than the existing algorithms. Models and control algorithms for high-fidelity models were designed and tested for point-to-point and multi-terminal configurations. The multi-terminal configuration was tested connecting simplified models of EI, WI, and Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT). The developed models showed up to 45% improvement in frequency response with the connection of all the three asynchronous interconnections in the United States using fast and advanced DC technologies like the multi-terminal MMC-DC system. Future work will look into developing high-fidelity models of other advanced DC technologies, combining high-fidelity models with the continental-level model, incorporating additional services. More scenarios involving large-scale HVDC and MTDC will be evaluated.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [3];  [4];  [4];  [4]
  1. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  3. Mid-Continent Independent System Operator (MISO), St. Paul, MN (United States)
  4. Siemens, Knoxville, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1418094
Report Number(s):
PNNL-26640
TE1500000
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION

Citation Formats

Makarov, Yuri V., Elizondo, Marcelo A., O'Brien, James G., Huang, Qiuhua, Kirkham, Harold, Huang, Zhenyu, Chinthavali, Madhu, Suman, Debnath, Mohan, Nihal, Hess, Warren, Duebner, David, Orser, David, Brown, Hilary, Osborn, Dale, Feltes, James, Kurthakoti Chandrashekhara, Divya, and Zhu, Wenchun. Models and methods for assessing the value of HVDC and MVDC technologies in modern power grids. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1418094.
Makarov, Yuri V., Elizondo, Marcelo A., O'Brien, James G., Huang, Qiuhua, Kirkham, Harold, Huang, Zhenyu, Chinthavali, Madhu, Suman, Debnath, Mohan, Nihal, Hess, Warren, Duebner, David, Orser, David, Brown, Hilary, Osborn, Dale, Feltes, James, Kurthakoti Chandrashekhara, Divya, & Zhu, Wenchun. Models and methods for assessing the value of HVDC and MVDC technologies in modern power grids. United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/1418094
Makarov, Yuri V., Elizondo, Marcelo A., O'Brien, James G., Huang, Qiuhua, Kirkham, Harold, Huang, Zhenyu, Chinthavali, Madhu, Suman, Debnath, Mohan, Nihal, Hess, Warren, Duebner, David, Orser, David, Brown, Hilary, Osborn, Dale, Feltes, James, Kurthakoti Chandrashekhara, Divya, and Zhu, Wenchun. Mon . "Models and methods for assessing the value of HVDC and MVDC technologies in modern power grids". United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/1418094. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1418094.
@article{osti_1418094,
title = {Models and methods for assessing the value of HVDC and MVDC technologies in modern power grids},
author = {Makarov, Yuri V. and Elizondo, Marcelo A. and O'Brien, James G. and Huang, Qiuhua and Kirkham, Harold and Huang, Zhenyu and Chinthavali, Madhu and Suman, Debnath and Mohan, Nihal and Hess, Warren and Duebner, David and Orser, David and Brown, Hilary and Osborn, Dale and Feltes, James and Kurthakoti Chandrashekhara, Divya and Zhu, Wenchun},
abstractNote = {This report reflects the results of U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Grid Modernization project 0074 “Models and methods for assessing the value of HVDC [high-voltage direct current] and MTDC [multi-terminal direct current] technologies in modern power grids.” The work was done by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in cooperation with Mid-Continent Independent System Operator (MISO) and Siemens. The main motivation of this study was to show the benefit of using direct current (DC) systems larger than those in existence today as they overlap with the alternating current (AC) systems. Proper use of their flexibility in terms of active/reactive power control and fast response can provide much-needed services to the grid at the same time as moving large blocks of energy to take advantage of cost diversity. Ultimately, the project’s success will enable decision-makers and investors to make well-informed decisions regarding this use of DC systems. This project showed the technical feasibility of HVDC macrogrid for frequency control and congestion relief in addition to bulk power transfers. Industry-established models for commonly used technologies were employed, along with high-fidelity models for recently developed HVDC converter technologies; like the modular multilevel converters (MMCs), a voltage source converters (VSC). Models for General Electric Positive Sequence Load Flow (GE PSLF) and Siemens Power System Simulator (PSS/E), widely used analysis programs, were for the first time adapted to include at the same time both Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) and Eastern Interconnection (EI), the two largest North American interconnections. The high-fidelity models and their control were developed in detail for MMC system and extended to HVDC systems in point-to-point and in three-node multi-terminal configurations. Using a continental-level mixed AC-DC grid model, and using a HVDC macrogrid power flow and transient stability model, the results showed that the HVDC macrogrid relieved congestion and mitigated loop flows in AC networks, and provided up to 24% improvement in frequency responses. These are realistic studies, based on the 2025 heavy summer and EI multi-regional modeling working group (MMWG) 2026 summer peak cases. This work developed high-fidelity models and simulation algorithms to understand the dynamics of MMC. The developed models and simulation algorithms are up to 25 times faster than the existing algorithms. Models and control algorithms for high-fidelity models were designed and tested for point-to-point and multi-terminal configurations. The multi-terminal configuration was tested connecting simplified models of EI, WI, and Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT). The developed models showed up to 45% improvement in frequency response with the connection of all the three asynchronous interconnections in the United States using fast and advanced DC technologies like the multi-terminal MMC-DC system. Future work will look into developing high-fidelity models of other advanced DC technologies, combining high-fidelity models with the continental-level model, incorporating additional services. More scenarios involving large-scale HVDC and MTDC will be evaluated.},
doi = {10.2172/1418094},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1418094}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {7}
}