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Title: Structured photocathodes for improved high-energy x-ray efficiency in streak cameras

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1417269
Report Number(s):
LLNL-CONF-740942
Journal ID: ISSN 0034--6748
DOE Contract Number:
AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Journal Volume: 87; Journal Issue: 11; Conference: Presented at: High-Temperature Plasma Diagnostics, Madison, WI, United States, Jun 05 - Jun 09, 2016
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; 46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Citation Formats

Opachich, Y P, Bell, P M, Bradley, D K, Chen, N, Feng, J, Gopal, A, Hatch, B, Hilsabeck, T J, Huffman, E, Koch, J A, Landen, O L, MacPhee, A G, Nagel, S R, and Udin, S. Structured photocathodes for improved high-energy x-ray efficiency in streak cameras. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4961302.
Opachich, Y P, Bell, P M, Bradley, D K, Chen, N, Feng, J, Gopal, A, Hatch, B, Hilsabeck, T J, Huffman, E, Koch, J A, Landen, O L, MacPhee, A G, Nagel, S R, & Udin, S. Structured photocathodes for improved high-energy x-ray efficiency in streak cameras. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4961302.
Opachich, Y P, Bell, P M, Bradley, D K, Chen, N, Feng, J, Gopal, A, Hatch, B, Hilsabeck, T J, Huffman, E, Koch, J A, Landen, O L, MacPhee, A G, Nagel, S R, and Udin, S. 2017. "Structured photocathodes for improved high-energy x-ray efficiency in streak cameras". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4961302. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1417269.
@article{osti_1417269,
title = {Structured photocathodes for improved high-energy x-ray efficiency in streak cameras},
author = {Opachich, Y P and Bell, P M and Bradley, D K and Chen, N and Feng, J and Gopal, A and Hatch, B and Hilsabeck, T J and Huffman, E and Koch, J A and Landen, O L and MacPhee, A G and Nagel, S R and Udin, S},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1063/1.4961302},
journal = {},
number = 11,
volume = 87,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month =
}

Conference:
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  • We have designed and fabricated a structured streak camera photocathode to provide enhanced efficiency for high energy X-rays (1–12 keV). This gold coated photocathode was tested in a streak camera and compared side by side against a conventional flat thin film photocathode. Results show that the measured electron yield enhancement at energies ranging from 1 to 10 keV scales well with predictions, and that the total enhancement can be more than 3×. The spatial resolution of the streak camera does not show degradation in the structured region. We predict that the temporal resolution of the detector will also not bemore » affected as it is currently dominated by the slit width. This demonstration with Au motivates exploration of comparable enhancements with CsI and may revolutionize X-ray streak camera photocathode design.« less
  • X-ray streak cameras at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory use gold transmission photocathodes for x-ray detection. Other photocathode materials which might provide improved sensitivity without loss of temporal resolution are of interest. Of particular interest are dielectrics such as cesium iodide. Simultaneous measurements of the sensitivity to 500 eV x-rays of both gold and cesium iodide photocathodes in the LLL Soft X-ray Streak Camera were made. Enhanced sensitivity with the Csl photocathodes is reported and no degradation of temporal resolution for 100 ps x-ray pulses is seen. We have established the optimum thickness for maximum sensitivity of gold photocathodes to be 100more » A. The maximum sensitivity of cesium iodide was observed for photocathode thickness of 1100 A.« less
  • A standard LLNL streak camera has been used to analyze high contrast pulses on the Nova laser facility. These pulses have a plateau at their leading edge (foot) with an amplitude which is approximately 1% of the maximum pulse height. Relying on other features of the pulses and on signal multiplexing, we were able to determine how accurately the foot amplitude was being represented by the camera. Results indicate that the useful single channel dynamic range of the instrument approaches 100:1. 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab.
  • Several scientific programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) require instrumentation that can capture optical signals with high fidelity. Typically, they require high temporal resolution, high spatial resolution, and high dynamic range. The instrument of choice for most of these multichannel, data-recording applications is the optical streak camera. We have evaluated three optical streak camera systems under similar conditions: the EGandG model L-CA-15 streak camera, designed and built under US Department of Energy (DOE) contract, with a streak tube designed for a time response of a few picoseconds; an in-house (LLNL) design, with an ITT F4157 streak tube that alsomore » operates in the extraction mode; and a Thomson-CSF model TSN 506 streak camera, with an ITT F4157 streak tube that also operates in the extraction mode. All three systems were found to be capable of time response better than 40 ps FWHM, a dynamic range of greater than 100, and spatial resolution greater than 5 line pairs per millimeter (1p/mm). The experimental setup and plots of results are presented and discussed. 13 refs., 11 figs.« less