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Title: Final Report: Optimal Model Complexity in Geological Carbon Sequestration: A Response Surface Uncertainty Analysis

Abstract

The critical component of a risk assessment study in evaluating GCS is an analysis of uncertainty in CO2 modeling. In such analyses, direct numerical simulation of CO2 flow and leakage requires many time-consuming model runs. Alternatively, analytical methods have been developed which allow fast and efficient estimation of CO2 storage and leakage, although restrictive assumptions on formation rock and fluid properties are employed. In this study, an intermediate approach is proposed based on the Design of Experiment and Response Surface methodology, which consists of using a limited number of numerical simulations to estimate a prediction outcome as a combination of the most influential uncertain site properties. The methodology can be implemented within a Monte Carlo framework to efficiently assess parameter and prediction uncertainty while honoring the accuracy of numerical simulations. The choice of the uncertain properties is flexible and can include geologic parameters that influence reservoir heterogeneity, engineering parameters that influence gas trapping and migration, and reactive parameters that influence the extent of fluid/rock reactions. The method was tested and verified on modeling long-term CO2 flow, non-isothermal heat transport, and CO2 dissolution storage by coupling two-phase flow with explicit miscibility calculation using an accurate equation of state that gives risemore » to convective mixing of formation brine variably saturated with CO2. All simulations were performed using three-dimensional high-resolution models including a target deep saline aquifer, overlying caprock, and a shallow aquifer. To evaluate the uncertainty in representing reservoir permeability, sediment hierarchy of a heterogeneous digital stratigraphy was mapped to create multiple irregularly shape stratigraphic models of decreasing geologic resolutions: heterogeneous (reference), lithofacies, depositional environment, and a (homogeneous) geologic formation. To ensure model equivalency, all the stratigraphic models were successfully upscaled from the reference heterogeneous model for bulk flow and transport predictions (Zhang & Zhang, 2015). GCS simulation was then simulated with all models, yielding insights into the level of parameterization complexity that is needed for the accurate simulation of reservoir pore pressure, CO2 storage, leakage, footprint, and dissolution over both short (i.e., injection) and longer (monitoring) time scales. Important uncertainty parameters that impact these key performance metrics were identified for the stratigraphic models as well as for the heterogeneous model, leading to the development of reduced/simplified models at lower characterization cost that can be used for the reservoir uncertainty analysis. All the CO2 modeling was conducted using PFLOTRAN – a massively parallel, multiphase, multi-component, and reactive transport simulator developed by a multi-laboratory DOE/SciDAC (Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing) project (Zhang et al., 2017, in review). Within the uncertainty analysis framework, increasing reservoir depth were investigated to explore its effect on the uncertainty outcomes and the potential for developing gravity-stable injection with increased storage security (Dai et al., 20126; Dai et al., 2017, in review). Finally, to accurately model CO2 fluid-rock reactions and resulting long-term storage as secondary carbonate minerals, a modified kinetic rate law for general mineral dissolution and precipitation was proposed and verified that is invariant to a scale transformation of the mineral formula weight. This new formulation will lead to more accurate assessment of mineral storage over geologic time scales (Lichtner, 2016).« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE)
OSTI Identifier:
1417199
Report Number(s):
DOE-Wyoming-09238
DOE Contract Number:
FE0009238
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; Carbon Sequestration; Numerical Simulation; Model Complexity

Citation Formats

Zhang, Ye. Final Report: Optimal Model Complexity in Geological Carbon Sequestration: A Response Surface Uncertainty Analysis. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.2172/1417199.
Zhang, Ye. Final Report: Optimal Model Complexity in Geological Carbon Sequestration: A Response Surface Uncertainty Analysis. United States. doi:10.2172/1417199.
Zhang, Ye. Wed . "Final Report: Optimal Model Complexity in Geological Carbon Sequestration: A Response Surface Uncertainty Analysis". United States. doi:10.2172/1417199. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1417199.
@article{osti_1417199,
title = {Final Report: Optimal Model Complexity in Geological Carbon Sequestration: A Response Surface Uncertainty Analysis},
author = {Zhang, Ye},
abstractNote = {The critical component of a risk assessment study in evaluating GCS is an analysis of uncertainty in CO2 modeling. In such analyses, direct numerical simulation of CO2 flow and leakage requires many time-consuming model runs. Alternatively, analytical methods have been developed which allow fast and efficient estimation of CO2 storage and leakage, although restrictive assumptions on formation rock and fluid properties are employed. In this study, an intermediate approach is proposed based on the Design of Experiment and Response Surface methodology, which consists of using a limited number of numerical simulations to estimate a prediction outcome as a combination of the most influential uncertain site properties. The methodology can be implemented within a Monte Carlo framework to efficiently assess parameter and prediction uncertainty while honoring the accuracy of numerical simulations. The choice of the uncertain properties is flexible and can include geologic parameters that influence reservoir heterogeneity, engineering parameters that influence gas trapping and migration, and reactive parameters that influence the extent of fluid/rock reactions. The method was tested and verified on modeling long-term CO2 flow, non-isothermal heat transport, and CO2 dissolution storage by coupling two-phase flow with explicit miscibility calculation using an accurate equation of state that gives rise to convective mixing of formation brine variably saturated with CO2. All simulations were performed using three-dimensional high-resolution models including a target deep saline aquifer, overlying caprock, and a shallow aquifer. To evaluate the uncertainty in representing reservoir permeability, sediment hierarchy of a heterogeneous digital stratigraphy was mapped to create multiple irregularly shape stratigraphic models of decreasing geologic resolutions: heterogeneous (reference), lithofacies, depositional environment, and a (homogeneous) geologic formation. To ensure model equivalency, all the stratigraphic models were successfully upscaled from the reference heterogeneous model for bulk flow and transport predictions (Zhang & Zhang, 2015). GCS simulation was then simulated with all models, yielding insights into the level of parameterization complexity that is needed for the accurate simulation of reservoir pore pressure, CO2 storage, leakage, footprint, and dissolution over both short (i.e., injection) and longer (monitoring) time scales. Important uncertainty parameters that impact these key performance metrics were identified for the stratigraphic models as well as for the heterogeneous model, leading to the development of reduced/simplified models at lower characterization cost that can be used for the reservoir uncertainty analysis. All the CO2 modeling was conducted using PFLOTRAN – a massively parallel, multiphase, multi-component, and reactive transport simulator developed by a multi-laboratory DOE/SciDAC (Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing) project (Zhang et al., 2017, in review). Within the uncertainty analysis framework, increasing reservoir depth were investigated to explore its effect on the uncertainty outcomes and the potential for developing gravity-stable injection with increased storage security (Dai et al., 20126; Dai et al., 2017, in review). Finally, to accurately model CO2 fluid-rock reactions and resulting long-term storage as secondary carbonate minerals, a modified kinetic rate law for general mineral dissolution and precipitation was proposed and verified that is invariant to a scale transformation of the mineral formula weight. This new formulation will lead to more accurate assessment of mineral storage over geologic time scales (Lichtner, 2016).},
doi = {10.2172/1417199},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jan 17 00:00:00 EST 2018},
month = {Wed Jan 17 00:00:00 EST 2018}
}

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