Modeling the direct sun component in buildings using matrix algebraic approaches: Methods and validation
Abstract
Simulation tools that enable annual energy performance analysis of opticallycomplex fenestration systems have been widely adopted by the building industry for use in building design, code development, and the development of rating and certification programs for commerciallyavailable shading and daylighting products. The tools rely on a threephase matrix operation to compute solar heat gains, using as input lowresolution bidirectional scattering distribution function (BSDF) data (10–15° angular resolution; BSDF data define the angledependent behavior of lightscattering materials and systems). Measurement standards and product libraries for BSDF data are undergoing development to support solar heat gain calculations. Simulation of other metrics such as discomfort glare, annual solar exposure, and potentially thermal discomfort, however, require algorithms and BSDF input data that more accurately model the spatial distribution of transmitted and reflected irradiance or illuminance from the sun (0.5° resolution). This study describes such algorithms and input data, then validates the tools (i.e., an interpolation tool for measured BSDF data and the fivephase method) through comparisons with raytracing simulations and field monitored data from a fullscale testbed. Simulations of daylightredirecting films, a microlouvered screen, and venetian blinds using variable resolution, tensor tree BSDF input data derived from interpolated scanning goniophotometer measurements were shown tomore »
 Authors:
 Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
 Bartenbach GmbH, Aldrans (Austria)
 Anyhere Software, Berkeley, CA (United States)
 Publication Date:
 Research Org.:
 Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
 Sponsoring Org.:
 USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Building Technologies Office (EE5B)
 OSTI Identifier:
 1416950
 Grant/Contract Number:
 AC0205CH11231
 Resource Type:
 Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
 Journal Name:
 Solar Energy
 Additional Journal Information:
 Journal Volume: 160; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0038092X
 Publisher:
 Elsevier
 Country of Publication:
 United States
 Language:
 English
 Subject:
 14 SOLAR ENERGY
Citation Formats
Lee, Eleanor S., GeislerMoroder, David, and Ward, Gregory. Modeling the direct sun component in buildings using matrix algebraic approaches: Methods and validation. United States: N. p., 2017.
Web. doi:10.1016/j.solener.2017.12.029.
Lee, Eleanor S., GeislerMoroder, David, & Ward, Gregory. Modeling the direct sun component in buildings using matrix algebraic approaches: Methods and validation. United States. doi:10.1016/j.solener.2017.12.029.
Lee, Eleanor S., GeislerMoroder, David, and Ward, Gregory. Sat .
"Modeling the direct sun component in buildings using matrix algebraic approaches: Methods and validation". United States.
doi:10.1016/j.solener.2017.12.029.
@article{osti_1416950,
title = {Modeling the direct sun component in buildings using matrix algebraic approaches: Methods and validation},
author = {Lee, Eleanor S. and GeislerMoroder, David and Ward, Gregory},
abstractNote = {Simulation tools that enable annual energy performance analysis of opticallycomplex fenestration systems have been widely adopted by the building industry for use in building design, code development, and the development of rating and certification programs for commerciallyavailable shading and daylighting products. The tools rely on a threephase matrix operation to compute solar heat gains, using as input lowresolution bidirectional scattering distribution function (BSDF) data (10–15° angular resolution; BSDF data define the angledependent behavior of lightscattering materials and systems). Measurement standards and product libraries for BSDF data are undergoing development to support solar heat gain calculations. Simulation of other metrics such as discomfort glare, annual solar exposure, and potentially thermal discomfort, however, require algorithms and BSDF input data that more accurately model the spatial distribution of transmitted and reflected irradiance or illuminance from the sun (0.5° resolution). This study describes such algorithms and input data, then validates the tools (i.e., an interpolation tool for measured BSDF data and the fivephase method) through comparisons with raytracing simulations and field monitored data from a fullscale testbed. Simulations of daylightredirecting films, a microlouvered screen, and venetian blinds using variable resolution, tensor tree BSDF input data derived from interpolated scanning goniophotometer measurements were shown to agree with field monitored data to within 20% for greater than 75% of the measurement period for illuminancebased performance parameters. The threephase method delivered significantly less accurate results. We discuss the ramifications of these findings on industry and provide recommendations to increase end user awareness of the current limitations of existing software tools and BSDF product libraries.},
doi = {10.1016/j.solener.2017.12.029},
journal = {Solar Energy},
number = C,
volume = 160,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Dec 23 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Sat Dec 23 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

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