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Title: Calibration, event reconstruction, data analysis, and limit calculation for the LUX dark matter experiment

Abstract

Here, the LUX experiment has performed searches for dark matter particles scattering elastically on xenon nuclei, leading to stringent upper limits on the nuclear scattering cross sections for dark matter. Here, for results derived from $${1.4}\times 10^{4}\;\mathrm{kg\,days}$$ of target exposure in 2013, details of the calibration, event-reconstruction, modeling, and statistical tests that underlie the results are presented. Detector performance is characterized, including measured efficiencies, stability of response, position resolution, and discrimination between electron- and nuclear-recoil populations. Models are developed for the drift field, optical properties, background populations, the electron- and nuclear-recoil responses, and the absolute rate of low-energy background events. Innovations in the analysis include in situ measurement of the photomultipliers' response to xenon scintillation photons, verification of fiducial mass with a low-energy internal calibration source, and new empirical models for low-energy signal yield based on large-sample, in situ calibrations.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
Contributing Org.:
LUX Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1416947
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1439738
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231; FG02-08ER41549; FG02-91ER40688; FG02-95ER40917; FG02-91ER40674; NA0000979; FG02-11ER41738; SC0006605; AC52-07NA27344; FG01-91ER40618
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review D
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 97; Journal Issue: 10; Journal ID: ISSN 2470-0010
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS

Citation Formats

Akerib, D. S., Alsum, S., Araújo, H. M., Bai, X., Bailey, A. J., Balajthy, J., Beltrame, P., Bernard, E. P., Bernstein, A., Biesiadzinski, T. P., Boulton, E. M., Brás, P., Byram, D., Cahn, S. B., Carmona-Benitez, M. C., Chan, C., Currie, A., Cutter, J. E., Davison, T. J. R., Dobi, A., Dobson, J. E. Y., Druszkiewicz, E., Edwards, B. N., Faham, C. H., Fallon, S. R., Fan, A., Fiorucci, S., Gaitskell, R. J., Gehman, V. M., Genovesi, J., Ghag, C., Gilchriese, M. G. D., Hall, C. R., Hanhardt, M., Haselschwardt, S. J., Hertel, S. A., Hogan, D. P., Horn, M., Huang, D. Q., Ignarra, C. M., Jacobsen, R. G., Ji, W., Kamdin, K., Kazkaz, K., Khaitan, D., Knoche, R., Larsen, N. A., Lee, C., Lenardo, B. G., Lesko, K. T., Lindote, A., Lopes, M. I., Manalaysay, A., Mannino, R. L., Marzioni, M. F., McKinsey, D. N., Mei, D. -M., Mock, J., Moongweluwan, M., Morad, J. A., Murphy, A. St. J., Nehrkorn, C., Nelson, H. N., Neves, F., O’Sullivan, K., Oliver-Mallory, K. C., Palladino, K. J., Pease, E. K., Reichhart, L., Rhyne, C., Shaw, S., Shutt, T. A., Silva, C., Solmaz, M., Solovov, V. N., Sorensen, P., Sumner, T. J., Szydagis, M., Taylor, D. J., Taylor, W. C., Tennyson, B. P., Terman, P. A., Tiedt, D. R., To, W. H., Tripathi, M., Tvrznikova, L., Uvarov, S., Velan, V., Verbus, J. R., Webb, R. C., White, J. T., Whitis, T. J., Witherell, M. S., Wolfs, F. L. H., Xu, J., Yazdani, K., Young, S. K., and Zhang, C. Calibration, event reconstruction, data analysis, and limit calculation for the LUX dark matter experiment. United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.97.102008.
Akerib, D. S., Alsum, S., Araújo, H. M., Bai, X., Bailey, A. J., Balajthy, J., Beltrame, P., Bernard, E. P., Bernstein, A., Biesiadzinski, T. P., Boulton, E. M., Brás, P., Byram, D., Cahn, S. B., Carmona-Benitez, M. C., Chan, C., Currie, A., Cutter, J. E., Davison, T. J. R., Dobi, A., Dobson, J. E. Y., Druszkiewicz, E., Edwards, B. N., Faham, C. H., Fallon, S. R., Fan, A., Fiorucci, S., Gaitskell, R. J., Gehman, V. M., Genovesi, J., Ghag, C., Gilchriese, M. G. D., Hall, C. R., Hanhardt, M., Haselschwardt, S. J., Hertel, S. A., Hogan, D. P., Horn, M., Huang, D. Q., Ignarra, C. M., Jacobsen, R. G., Ji, W., Kamdin, K., Kazkaz, K., Khaitan, D., Knoche, R., Larsen, N. A., Lee, C., Lenardo, B. G., Lesko, K. T., Lindote, A., Lopes, M. I., Manalaysay, A., Mannino, R. L., Marzioni, M. F., McKinsey, D. N., Mei, D. -M., Mock, J., Moongweluwan, M., Morad, J. A., Murphy, A. St. J., Nehrkorn, C., Nelson, H. N., Neves, F., O’Sullivan, K., Oliver-Mallory, K. C., Palladino, K. J., Pease, E. K., Reichhart, L., Rhyne, C., Shaw, S., Shutt, T. A., Silva, C., Solmaz, M., Solovov, V. N., Sorensen, P., Sumner, T. J., Szydagis, M., Taylor, D. J., Taylor, W. C., Tennyson, B. P., Terman, P. A., Tiedt, D. R., To, W. H., Tripathi, M., Tvrznikova, L., Uvarov, S., Velan, V., Verbus, J. R., Webb, R. C., White, J. T., Whitis, T. J., Witherell, M. S., Wolfs, F. L. H., Xu, J., Yazdani, K., Young, S. K., & Zhang, C. Calibration, event reconstruction, data analysis, and limit calculation for the LUX dark matter experiment. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.97.102008.
Akerib, D. S., Alsum, S., Araújo, H. M., Bai, X., Bailey, A. J., Balajthy, J., Beltrame, P., Bernard, E. P., Bernstein, A., Biesiadzinski, T. P., Boulton, E. M., Brás, P., Byram, D., Cahn, S. B., Carmona-Benitez, M. C., Chan, C., Currie, A., Cutter, J. E., Davison, T. J. R., Dobi, A., Dobson, J. E. Y., Druszkiewicz, E., Edwards, B. N., Faham, C. H., Fallon, S. R., Fan, A., Fiorucci, S., Gaitskell, R. J., Gehman, V. M., Genovesi, J., Ghag, C., Gilchriese, M. G. D., Hall, C. R., Hanhardt, M., Haselschwardt, S. J., Hertel, S. A., Hogan, D. P., Horn, M., Huang, D. Q., Ignarra, C. M., Jacobsen, R. G., Ji, W., Kamdin, K., Kazkaz, K., Khaitan, D., Knoche, R., Larsen, N. A., Lee, C., Lenardo, B. G., Lesko, K. T., Lindote, A., Lopes, M. I., Manalaysay, A., Mannino, R. L., Marzioni, M. F., McKinsey, D. N., Mei, D. -M., Mock, J., Moongweluwan, M., Morad, J. A., Murphy, A. St. J., Nehrkorn, C., Nelson, H. N., Neves, F., O’Sullivan, K., Oliver-Mallory, K. C., Palladino, K. J., Pease, E. K., Reichhart, L., Rhyne, C., Shaw, S., Shutt, T. A., Silva, C., Solmaz, M., Solovov, V. N., Sorensen, P., Sumner, T. J., Szydagis, M., Taylor, D. J., Taylor, W. C., Tennyson, B. P., Terman, P. A., Tiedt, D. R., To, W. H., Tripathi, M., Tvrznikova, L., Uvarov, S., Velan, V., Verbus, J. R., Webb, R. C., White, J. T., Whitis, T. J., Witherell, M. S., Wolfs, F. L. H., Xu, J., Yazdani, K., Young, S. K., and Zhang, C. Thu . "Calibration, event reconstruction, data analysis, and limit calculation for the LUX dark matter experiment". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.97.102008.
@article{osti_1416947,
title = {Calibration, event reconstruction, data analysis, and limit calculation for the LUX dark matter experiment},
author = {Akerib, D. S. and Alsum, S. and Araújo, H. M. and Bai, X. and Bailey, A. J. and Balajthy, J. and Beltrame, P. and Bernard, E. P. and Bernstein, A. and Biesiadzinski, T. P. and Boulton, E. M. and Brás, P. and Byram, D. and Cahn, S. B. and Carmona-Benitez, M. C. and Chan, C. and Currie, A. and Cutter, J. E. and Davison, T. J. R. and Dobi, A. and Dobson, J. E. Y. and Druszkiewicz, E. and Edwards, B. N. and Faham, C. H. and Fallon, S. R. and Fan, A. and Fiorucci, S. and Gaitskell, R. J. and Gehman, V. M. and Genovesi, J. and Ghag, C. and Gilchriese, M. G. D. and Hall, C. R. and Hanhardt, M. and Haselschwardt, S. J. and Hertel, S. A. and Hogan, D. P. and Horn, M. and Huang, D. Q. and Ignarra, C. M. and Jacobsen, R. G. and Ji, W. and Kamdin, K. and Kazkaz, K. and Khaitan, D. and Knoche, R. and Larsen, N. A. and Lee, C. and Lenardo, B. G. and Lesko, K. T. and Lindote, A. and Lopes, M. I. and Manalaysay, A. and Mannino, R. L. and Marzioni, M. F. and McKinsey, D. N. and Mei, D. -M. and Mock, J. and Moongweluwan, M. and Morad, J. A. and Murphy, A. St. J. and Nehrkorn, C. and Nelson, H. N. and Neves, F. and O’Sullivan, K. and Oliver-Mallory, K. C. and Palladino, K. J. and Pease, E. K. and Reichhart, L. and Rhyne, C. and Shaw, S. and Shutt, T. A. and Silva, C. and Solmaz, M. and Solovov, V. N. and Sorensen, P. and Sumner, T. J. and Szydagis, M. and Taylor, D. J. and Taylor, W. C. and Tennyson, B. P. and Terman, P. A. and Tiedt, D. R. and To, W. H. and Tripathi, M. and Tvrznikova, L. and Uvarov, S. and Velan, V. and Verbus, J. R. and Webb, R. C. and White, J. T. and Whitis, T. J. and Witherell, M. S. and Wolfs, F. L. H. and Xu, J. and Yazdani, K. and Young, S. K. and Zhang, C.},
abstractNote = {Here, the LUX experiment has performed searches for dark matter particles scattering elastically on xenon nuclei, leading to stringent upper limits on the nuclear scattering cross sections for dark matter. Here, for results derived from ${1.4}\times 10^{4}\;\mathrm{kg\,days}$ of target exposure in 2013, details of the calibration, event-reconstruction, modeling, and statistical tests that underlie the results are presented. Detector performance is characterized, including measured efficiencies, stability of response, position resolution, and discrimination between electron- and nuclear-recoil populations. Models are developed for the drift field, optical properties, background populations, the electron- and nuclear-recoil responses, and the absolute rate of low-energy background events. Innovations in the analysis include in situ measurement of the photomultipliers' response to xenon scintillation photons, verification of fiducial mass with a low-energy internal calibration source, and new empirical models for low-energy signal yield based on large-sample, in situ calibrations.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevD.97.102008},
journal = {Physical Review D},
number = 10,
volume = 97,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu May 31 00:00:00 EDT 2018},
month = {Thu May 31 00:00:00 EDT 2018}
}

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Works referenced in this record:

Liquid xenon detectors for particle physics and astrophysics
journal, July 2010