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Title: A reduced order model to analytically infer atmospheric CO 2 concentration from stomatal and climate data

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Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
OSTI Identifier:
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0006967; SC0011461
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Advances in Water Resources
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 104; Journal Issue: C; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2018-01-09 20:10:28; Journal ID: ISSN 0309-1708
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom

Citation Formats

Konrad, Wilfried, Katul, Gabriel, Roth-Nebelsick, Anita, and Grein, Michaela. A reduced order model to analytically infer atmospheric CO 2 concentration from stomatal and climate data. United Kingdom: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.03.018.
Konrad, Wilfried, Katul, Gabriel, Roth-Nebelsick, Anita, & Grein, Michaela. A reduced order model to analytically infer atmospheric CO 2 concentration from stomatal and climate data. United Kingdom. doi:10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.03.018.
Konrad, Wilfried, Katul, Gabriel, Roth-Nebelsick, Anita, and Grein, Michaela. 2017. "A reduced order model to analytically infer atmospheric CO 2 concentration from stomatal and climate data". United Kingdom. doi:10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.03.018.
title = {A reduced order model to analytically infer atmospheric CO 2 concentration from stomatal and climate data},
author = {Konrad, Wilfried and Katul, Gabriel and Roth-Nebelsick, Anita and Grein, Michaela},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.03.018},
journal = {Advances in Water Resources},
number = C,
volume = 104,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = 2017,
month = 6

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on March 31, 2018
Publisher's Accepted Manuscript

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  • The optimization model of photosynthesis predicts CO{sub 2} concentration in the intercellular spaces (c{sub i}) to be dependent on environmental factors, including ambient CO{sub 2} concentration (c{sub a}). The predicted linear c{sub i} dependency on c{sub a}, which was inferred from a more general optimization statement, can be confirmed by literature data. In most cases, the model specifies well-known phenomenological dependency, i.e., the constancy of the c{sub i}/c{sub a} ratio. Upon simultaneous changes in other environmental factors, the model also predicts the changes in the c{sub i}(c{sub a}) dependency. The optimization statement was fulfilled to the same or higher extent,more » in which the basic input assumption was satisfied. It is concluded that the optimization approach is able to explain all data available on the stomatal responses to changes in ambient CO{sub 2} concentration. 22 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.« less
  • The optimization model of photosynthesis predicts stomatal response to changing oxygen concentration. According to the optimization statement, a decrease in oxygen concentration will result in a decline in CO{sub 2} concentration in the leaf intercellular spaces (c{sub i}), accompanied by an enhancement of photosynthesis. Because we have failed to find satisfactory data in the literature, we estimated the predicted changes in c{sub i} by 30-50 ml/l and increase photosynthesis by 40%. These estimates are consistent with the literature data. Futhermore, the predictions of the model were directly confirmed by the data obtained on six plant species. 14 refs., 2 tabs.
  • Leaf area index is an important input for many climate and carbon models. The widely used leaf area products derived from satellite-observed surface reflectances contain substantial erratic fluctuations in time due to inadequate atmospheric corrections and observational and retrieval uncertainties. These fluctuations are inconsistent with the seasonal dynamics of leaf area, known to be gradual. Their use in process-based terrestrial carbon models corrupts model behavior, making diagnosis of model performance difficult. We propose a data assimilation approach that combines the satellite observations of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) albedo with a dynamical leaf model. Its novelty is that the seasonalmore » cycle of the directly retrieved leaf areas is smooth and consistent with both observations and current understandings of processes controlling leaf area dynamics. The approach optimizes the dynamical model parameters such that the difference between the estimated surface reflectances based on the modeled leaf area and those of satellite observations is minimized. We demonstrate the usefulness and advantage of our new approach at multiple deciduous forest sites in the United States.« less
  • Increasing levels of atmospheric CO{sub 2} will not only modify climate, they will also likely increase the water-use efficiency of plants by decreasing stomatal openings. The effect of the imposition of {open_quotes}doubled stomatal resistance{close_quotes} on climate is investigated in off-line simulations with the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) and in two sets of global climate model simulations: for present-day and doubled atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. The anticipated evapotranspiration decrease is seen most clearly in the boreal forests in the summer although, for the present-day climate (but not at 2 x CO{sub 2}), there are also noticeable responses in the tropical forestsmore » in South America. In the latitude zone 44{degrees}N to 58{degrees}N, evapotranspiration decreases by -15 W m{sup 2}, temperatures increase by =2 K, and the sensible heat flux by +15 W m{sup {minus}2}. Soil moisture is often, but less extensively, increased, which can cause increases in runoff. The responses at 2 x CO{sub 2} are larger in the 44{degrees}N to 58{degrees}N zone than elsewhere. Globally, the impact of imposing a doubled stomatal resistance in the present-day climate is an increase in the annually averaged surface air temperature of 0.13 K and a reduction in total precipitation of -0.82%. If both the atmospheric CO{sub 2} content and the stomatal resistance are doubled, the global response in surface air temperature and precipitation are +2.72 K and +5.01% compared with +2.67 K and + 7.73% if CO{sub 2} is doubled but stomatal resistance remains unchanged as in the usual {open_quotes}greenhouse{close_quotes} experiment. Doubling stomatal resistance as well as atmospheric CO{sub 2} results in increased soil moisture in northern midlatitudes in summer. 40 refs.. 17 figs., 5 tabs.« less
  • Climatological statistics are shown from a 20-year simulation conducted with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate Model, version 2 (CCM2), using an annually repeating prescribed sea surface temperature climatology. In most regards, the simulated climate is significantly improved over earlier versions of the CCM, particularly with respect to mean climatological biases. The tropospheric thermodynamic cold and dry bias that has historically plagued the CCM is largely eliminated. Additionally, several aspects of the large-scale circulation are more faithfully reproduced, with significant improvements in the southern hemisphere circulation. Although most aspects of the CCM2 simulation are improved over thosemore » of previous model releases, there are some important elements of the climatology where the simulation is no better than, or in some cases degraded from, the earlier versions. The problem of a cold polar tropopause, although slightly improved, continues to be a major weakness of the simulation. Another more serious deficiency in the simulation is a warm bias in the northern hemisphere summer circulation, which affects the lower tropospheric and surface climate, as well as the top-of-atmosphere radiation budget. An aspect of the simulation that degrades certain characteristics of the midlatitude winter circulation when compared to the CCM1 is an anomalous southwestward displacement of diabatic heating in the western Pacific. A large component of the northern hemisphere summer warm bias and the shift in western Pacific deep convection are related to limitations in the CCM2 diagnosis of cloud optical properties. Unrealistic nonlinear interactions between moist convection and atmospheric boundary layer processes also play a role in tropical precipitation distribution deficiencies.« less