skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: PID techniques: Alternatives to RICH methods


Here, in this review article we discuss new updates on PID techniques, other than the Cherenkov method. In particular, we discuss recent efforts to develop high resolution timing, placing an emphasis on small scale test results.

  1. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
OSTI Identifier:
Grant/Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 876; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0168-9002
Country of Publication:
United States
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; Photodetectors; Si detectors; Diamond detectors; TOF; dE/dx; TRD; PID

Citation Formats

Va’vra, J. PID techniques: Alternatives to RICH methods. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2017.02.075.
Va’vra, J. PID techniques: Alternatives to RICH methods. United States. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2017.02.075.
Va’vra, J. 2017. "PID techniques: Alternatives to RICH methods". United States. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2017.02.075.
title = {PID techniques: Alternatives to RICH methods},
author = {Va’vra, J.},
abstractNote = {Here, in this review article we discuss new updates on PID techniques, other than the Cherenkov method. In particular, we discuss recent efforts to develop high resolution timing, placing an emphasis on small scale test results.},
doi = {10.1016/j.nima.2017.02.075},
journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment},
number = C,
volume = 876,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 7

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on July 5, 2018
Publisher's Version of Record

Save / Share:
  • In this review article we discuss the recent progress in PID techniques other than the RICH methods. In particular we mention the recent progress in the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD), dE/dx cluster counting, and Time Of Flight (TOF) techniques. The TRD technique is mature and has been tried in many hadron colliders. It needs space though, about 20cm of detector radial space for every factor of 10 in the {pi}/e rejection power, and this tends to make such detectors large. Although the cluster counting technique is an old idea, it was never tried in a real physics experiment. Recently, theremore » are efforts to revive it for the SuperB experiment using He-based gases and waveform digitizing electronics. A factor of almost 2 improvement, compared to the classical dE/dx performance, is possible in principle. However, the complexity of the data analysis will be substantial. The TOF technique is well established, but introduction of new fast MCP-PMT and G-APD detectors creates new possibilities. It seems that resolutions below 20-30ps may be possible at some point in the future with relatively small systems, and perhaps this could be pushed down to 10-15ps with very small systems, assuming that one can solve many systematic issues. However, the cost, rate limitation, aging and cross-talk in multi-anode devices at high BW are problems. There are several groups working on these issues, so progress is likely. Table 6 summarizes the author's opinion of pros and cons of various detectors presented in this paper based on their operational capabilities. We refer the reader to Ref.40 for discussion of other more general limits from the PID point of view.« less
  • Many diseases are associated with a change in the distribution of diffusible ions at the cell or tissue level. These diseases can profitably be studied by X-ray microanalysis. This technique for the study of ion distribution requires the use of cryoprepared specimens. Analysis at low or medium resolution can be carried out on thick or semi-thick cryosections, or on frozen-hydrated or freeze-dried embedded bulk samples. Such analyses are particularly useful in the initial stages of an investigation or when data from a large number of samples have to be acquired. Also X-ray microanalysis of cultured or single cells prepared bymore » freeze-drying can be used to rapidly collect information on a large number of cells. Analysis at high resolution has to be carried out on thin sections: Cryosections or sections of freeze-substituted or freeze-dried embedded tissue. For the latter type of specimens, the use of low-temperature embedding methods may have important advantages.« less
  • 1. Tissue distribution studies of drug molecules play an essential role in the pharmaceutical industry and are commonly undertaken using quantitative whole body autoradiography (QWBA) methods. 2. The growing need for complementary methods to address some scientific gaps around radiography methods has led to increased use of mass spectrometric imaging (MSI) technology over the last 5 to 10 years. More recently, the development of novel mass spectrometric techniques for ambient surface sampling has redefined what can be regarded as fit-for-purpose for MSI in a drug metabolism and disposition arena. 3. Together with a review of these novel alternatives, this papermore » details the use of two liquid microjunction (LMJ)- based mass spectrometric surface sampling technologies. These approaches are used to provide qualitative determination of parent drug in rat liver tissue slices using liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) and to assess the performance of a LMJ surface sampling probe (LMJ-SSP) interface for quantitative assessment of parent drug in brain, liver and muscle tissue slices. 4. An assessment of the utility of these spatially-resolved sampling methods is given, showing interdependence between mass spectrometric and QWBA methods, in particular there emerges a reason to question typical MSI workflows for drug metabolism; suggesting the expedient use of profile or region analysis may be more appropriate, rather than generating time-intensive molecular images of the entire tissue section.« less
  • The following labels used as substitutes for radioisotopes in immunoassay systems are reviewed bacteriophages, chemiluminescence precursors, fluorochromes, fluorogens, fluorescence quenchers, enzymes, coenzymes, inhibitors, substrates, various particulates, metal atoms, and stable free radicals. New methods for performing immunoassays with these labels are described where appropriate. Methods that require no separation steps and offer special promise for easy automation are noted. 69 references cited.
  • Li-rich layered materials are important cathode compounds used in commercial lithium ion batteries, which, however, suffers from some drawbacks including the so-called voltage fade upon electrochemical cycling. Here, our study employs novel transmission X-ray microscopy to investigate the electrochemical reaction induced morphological and chemical changes in the Li-rich Li 2Ru 0.5Mn 0.5O 3 cathode particles at the meso to nano scale. We performed combined X-ray spectroscopy, diffraction and microscopy experiments to systematically study this cathode material's evolution upon cycling as well as to establish a comprehensive understanding of the structural origin of capacity fade through 2D and 3D fine lengthmore » scale morphology and heterogeneity change of this material. This work suggests that atomic manipulation (e.g. doping, substitution etc.) or nano engineering (e.g. nano-sizing, heterogeneous structure) are important strategies to mitigate the internal strain and defects induced by extensive lithium insertion/extraction. It also shows that maintaining the structural integrity is the key in designing and synthesizing lithium-rich layered materials with better cycle stability.« less