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Title: Interspecific and interannual variation in the duration of spring phenophases in a northern mixed forest

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1416190
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 243; Journal Issue: C; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2018-01-08 20:06:54; Journal ID: ISSN 0168-1923
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
Netherlands
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Donnelly, Alison, Yu, Rong, Caffarra, Amelia, Hanes, Jonathan, Liang, Liang, Desai, Ankur R., Liu, Lingling, and Schwartz, Mark D.. Interspecific and interannual variation in the duration of spring phenophases in a northern mixed forest. Netherlands: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2017.05.007.
Donnelly, Alison, Yu, Rong, Caffarra, Amelia, Hanes, Jonathan, Liang, Liang, Desai, Ankur R., Liu, Lingling, & Schwartz, Mark D.. Interspecific and interannual variation in the duration of spring phenophases in a northern mixed forest. Netherlands. doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2017.05.007.
Donnelly, Alison, Yu, Rong, Caffarra, Amelia, Hanes, Jonathan, Liang, Liang, Desai, Ankur R., Liu, Lingling, and Schwartz, Mark D.. 2017. "Interspecific and interannual variation in the duration of spring phenophases in a northern mixed forest". Netherlands. doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2017.05.007.
@article{osti_1416190,
title = {Interspecific and interannual variation in the duration of spring phenophases in a northern mixed forest},
author = {Donnelly, Alison and Yu, Rong and Caffarra, Amelia and Hanes, Jonathan and Liang, Liang and Desai, Ankur R. and Liu, Lingling and Schwartz, Mark D.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1016/j.agrformet.2017.05.007},
journal = {Agricultural and Forest Meteorology},
number = C,
volume = 243,
place = {Netherlands},
year = 2017,
month = 9
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on May 28, 2018
Publisher's Accepted Manuscript

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  • Ongoing spring warming allows the growing season to begin earlier, enhancing carbon uptake in northern ecosystems. We use 34 years of atmospheric CO 2 concentration measurements at Barrow, Alaska (BRW, 71° N) to show that the interannual relationship between spring temperature and carbon uptake has recently shifted. Here, we use two indicators: the spring zero-crossing date of atmospheric CO 2 (SZC) and the magnitude of CO 2 drawdown between May and June (SCC). The previously reported strong correlation between SZC, SCC and spring land temperature (ST) was found in the first 17 years of measurements, but disappeared in the lastmore » 17 years. As a result, the sensitivity of both SZC and SCC to warming decreased. Simulations with an atmospheric transport model coupled to a terrestrial ecosystem model suggest that the weakened interannual correlation of SZC and SCC with ST in the last 17 years is attributable to the declining temperature response of spring net primary productivity (NPP) rather than to changes in heterotrophic respiration or in atmospheric transport patterns. Reduced chilling during dormancy and emerging light limitation are possible mechanisms that may have contributed to the loss of NPP response to ST. These results thus challenge the ‘warmer spring–bigger sink’ mechanism.« less
  • Carbon dioxide fluxes were examined over the growing seasons of 2002 and 2003 from 14 different sites in Upper Midwest (USA) to assess spatial variability of ecosystem-atmosphere CO2 exchange. These sites were exposed to similar temperature/precipitation regimes and spanned a range of vegetation types typical of the region (northern hardwood, mixed forest, red pine, jack pine, pine barrens and shrub wetland). The hardwood and red pine sites also spanned a range of stand ages (young, intermediate, mature). While seasonal changes in net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and photosynthetic parameters were coherent across the 2 years at most sites, changes in ecosystemmore » respiration (ER) and gross ecosystem production (GEP) were not. Canopy height and vegetation type were important variables for explaining spatial variability of CO2 fluxes across the region. Light-use efficiency (LUE) was not as strongly correlated to GEP as maximum assimilation capacity (Amax). A bottom-up multi-tower land cover aggregated scaling of CO2 flux to a 2000 km(2) regional flux estimate found June to August 2003 NEE, ER and GEP to be -290 +/- 89, 408 +/- 48, and 698 +/- 73 gC m(-2), respectively. Aggregated NEE, ER and GEP were 280% larger, 32% smaller and 3% larger, respectively, than that observed from a regionally integrating 447 m tall flux tower. However, when the tall tower fluxes were decomposed using a footprint-weighted influence function and then re-aggregated to a regional estimate, the resulting NEE, ER and GEP were within 11% of the multi-tower aggregation. Excluding wetland and young stand age sites from the aggregation worsened the comparison to observed fluxes. These results provide insight on the range of spatial sampling, replication, measurement error and land cover accuracy needed for multi-tiered bottom-up scaling of CO2 fluxes in heterogeneous regions such as the Upper Midwest, USA. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.« less
  • The objective of this study was to clarify the relationships among stomatal, residual, and epidermal conductances in determining the flux of SO/sub 2/ air pollution to leaves. Variations in leaf SO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O vapor fluxes were determined using four plant species: Pisum sativum L. (garden pea), Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. flacca (mutant of tomato), Geranium carolinianum L. (wild geranium), and Diplacus aurantiacus (Curtis) Jeps. (a native California shrub). Fluxes were measured using the mass-balance approach during exposure to 4.56 micromoles per cubic meter (0.11 microliters per liter) SO/sub 2/ for 2 hours in a controlled environmental chamber. Flux throughmore » adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces with closed stomata ranged from 1.9 to 9.4 nanomoles per square meter per second for SO/sub 2/, and 0.3 to 1.3 millimoles per square meter per second for H/sub 2/O vapor. Flux of SO/sub 2/ into leaves through stomata ranged from approx.0 to 8.5 (dark) and 3.8 to 16.0 (light) millimoles per square meter per second. Flux of H/sub 2/O vapor from leaves through stomata ranged from approx.0 to 0.6 (dark) to 0.4 to 0.9 (light) millimole per square meter per second. Lycopersicon had internal flux rates for both SO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O vapor over twice as high as for the other species. Stomatal conductance based on H/sub 2/O vapor flux averaged from 0.07 to 0.13 mole per square meter per second among the four species. Internal conductance of SO/sub 2/ as calculated from SO/sub 2/ flux was from 0.04 mole per square meter per second lower to 0.06 mole per square meter per second higher than stomatal conductance. For Pisum, Geranium, and Diplacus stomatal conductance was the same or slightly higher than internal conductance, indicating that, in general, SO/sub 2/ flux could be predicted from stomatal conductance for H/sub 2/O vapor.« less
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  • Three numerical experiments have been conducted to explore the relative roles of midlatitude and tropical SSTs in producing atmospheric variability. In these experiments, anomalous observed SSTs were prescribed in (1) the tropical oceans only, (2) the midlatitude oceans only, and (3) globally. These simulations were conducted with the same atmospheric model and covered the period 1970-88. Although each simulation reproduced some aspects of the observed circulation variability, the results from the two experiments including tropical SSTs performed best by most measures, particularly in showing temporal signals that agreed with those seen in the observations. The results indicate that the responsemore » of the observed atmospheric circulation to North Pacific SST anomalies is much smaller and much less systematic than the response to tropical SSTs. It is suggested that the apparent links between North Pacific SSTs and the observed winter circulation are due primarily to the effects on oceanic forcing by the recurrent patterns of atmospheric variability remotely forced by changes in tropical SSTs. The results are consistent with the idea that the major shift in the winter circulation during the mid-1970s was forced by changes in tropical SSTs. 67 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.« less