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Title: Development of Membrane Distillation Technology Utilizing Waste Heat for Treatment of High Salinity Wastewaters

Abstract

Membrane distillation (MD) can serve as a cost effective method to treat high salinity wastewaters, especially if waste heat is utilized for its operation. The goal of this work is to study the feasibility of employing MD technology for the treatment of high salinity wastewaters which are generated as a result of natural gas production and active reservoir management for CO2 sequestration. This study also aimed at quantifying the availability of waste heat which could be used as the primary source of thermal energy to drive the MD process. Bench scale studies were carried out with several commercially available membranes using both synthetic and actual high salinity wastewaters. The membranes tested with real wastewater samples exhibited excellent rejection of dissolved ions, including naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Long term bench scale experiments with real produced water from the Marcellus shale play revealed that iron oxide could precipitate on the feed side of direct contact MD (DCMD) module but had a negligible effect on the performance of the system. Based on the bench scale experiments, an ASPEN Plus simulation, which incorporated a mathematical model with fundamental heat and mass transfer equations, was developed and used to evaluate the process energy requirements.more » Despite low operating temperature and pressure for MD, it had a large thermal energy requirement for operation, which could make this technology expensive compared to reverse osmosis (RO) and forward osmosis (FO). However, it is important to note that RO and FO have limited applicability for high salinity shale gas wastewater. Moreover, MD could be integrated with renewable energy sources such as wind or solar energy or industrial waste heat sources to offset the thermal energy requirements and enhance the economics of wastewater treatment. Natural gas compressor stations (NG CS) have been proposed in this study as the source of waste heat based on the estimate of quantity and quality of available waste heat in the exhaust streams of gas turbine and internal combustion compressor engines. Using the actual installed capacity and location of compressor stations in the U.S., this analysis revealed that an average of 610 TJ/day of thermal energy is available at existing NG CS and that this source of waste heat is of high quality with temperatures above 645 K. A systems-level integration of MD with waste heat from NG CS revealed that approximately 56% of available waste heat at NG CS in Pennsylvania is sufficient to concentrate (from 10% to 30% salinity) all wastewater associated with shale gas extraction. Techno-economic assessment (TEA) accounting for capital as well as operating and maintenance costs with and without waste heat integration was conducted for a hypothetical 0.5 million gallons per day (MGD) DCMD plant using experimental and modeling results from this study. TEA revealed that the total cost of shale gas wastewater treatment using MD is $5.7/m3feed for the base case scenario in which the thermal energy requirements are met by external steam, however, the total cost can be reduced to $0.74/m3feed when integrated with free waste heat from NG CS. Sensitivity analysis revealed that thermal energy cost and feed TDS are the most important factors in total cost of high salinity wastewater treatment using DCMD.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. University of Pittsburgh
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
University of Pittsburgh
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE)
OSTI Identifier:
1416184
Report Number(s):
Final report: DOE-UPITT-24061
DOE Contract Number:
FE0024061
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
Membrane distillation; waste heat; desalination; produced water; oil and gas industry; techno-economic analysis

Citation Formats

Vidic, Radisav D, Khanna, Vikas, and Lokare, Omkar R. Development of Membrane Distillation Technology Utilizing Waste Heat for Treatment of High Salinity Wastewaters. United States: N. p., 2017. Web.
Vidic, Radisav D, Khanna, Vikas, & Lokare, Omkar R. Development of Membrane Distillation Technology Utilizing Waste Heat for Treatment of High Salinity Wastewaters. United States.
Vidic, Radisav D, Khanna, Vikas, and Lokare, Omkar R. Thu . "Development of Membrane Distillation Technology Utilizing Waste Heat for Treatment of High Salinity Wastewaters". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_1416184,
title = {Development of Membrane Distillation Technology Utilizing Waste Heat for Treatment of High Salinity Wastewaters},
author = {Vidic, Radisav D and Khanna, Vikas and Lokare, Omkar R},
abstractNote = {Membrane distillation (MD) can serve as a cost effective method to treat high salinity wastewaters, especially if waste heat is utilized for its operation. The goal of this work is to study the feasibility of employing MD technology for the treatment of high salinity wastewaters which are generated as a result of natural gas production and active reservoir management for CO2 sequestration. This study also aimed at quantifying the availability of waste heat which could be used as the primary source of thermal energy to drive the MD process. Bench scale studies were carried out with several commercially available membranes using both synthetic and actual high salinity wastewaters. The membranes tested with real wastewater samples exhibited excellent rejection of dissolved ions, including naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Long term bench scale experiments with real produced water from the Marcellus shale play revealed that iron oxide could precipitate on the feed side of direct contact MD (DCMD) module but had a negligible effect on the performance of the system. Based on the bench scale experiments, an ASPEN Plus simulation, which incorporated a mathematical model with fundamental heat and mass transfer equations, was developed and used to evaluate the process energy requirements. Despite low operating temperature and pressure for MD, it had a large thermal energy requirement for operation, which could make this technology expensive compared to reverse osmosis (RO) and forward osmosis (FO). However, it is important to note that RO and FO have limited applicability for high salinity shale gas wastewater. Moreover, MD could be integrated with renewable energy sources such as wind or solar energy or industrial waste heat sources to offset the thermal energy requirements and enhance the economics of wastewater treatment. Natural gas compressor stations (NG CS) have been proposed in this study as the source of waste heat based on the estimate of quantity and quality of available waste heat in the exhaust streams of gas turbine and internal combustion compressor engines. Using the actual installed capacity and location of compressor stations in the U.S., this analysis revealed that an average of 610 TJ/day of thermal energy is available at existing NG CS and that this source of waste heat is of high quality with temperatures above 645 K. A systems-level integration of MD with waste heat from NG CS revealed that approximately 56% of available waste heat at NG CS in Pennsylvania is sufficient to concentrate (from 10% to 30% salinity) all wastewater associated with shale gas extraction. Techno-economic assessment (TEA) accounting for capital as well as operating and maintenance costs with and without waste heat integration was conducted for a hypothetical 0.5 million gallons per day (MGD) DCMD plant using experimental and modeling results from this study. TEA revealed that the total cost of shale gas wastewater treatment using MD is $5.7/m3feed for the base case scenario in which the thermal energy requirements are met by external steam, however, the total cost can be reduced to $0.74/m3feed when integrated with free waste heat from NG CS. Sensitivity analysis revealed that thermal energy cost and feed TDS are the most important factors in total cost of high salinity wastewater treatment using DCMD.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Nov 30 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Thu Nov 30 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Technical Report:
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