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Title: In-situ orientation and crystal growth kinetics of P3HT in drop cast P3HT:PCBM films

Authors:
; ; ; ORCiD logo
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1415889
Grant/Contract Number:
FG02-10ER4779
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Polymer
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 113; Journal Issue: C; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2018-01-05 12:14:53; Journal ID: ISSN 0032-3861
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Huq, Abul F., Ammar, Ali, Al-Enizi, Abdullah M., and Karim, Alamgir. In-situ orientation and crystal growth kinetics of P3HT in drop cast P3HT:PCBM films. United Kingdom: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.polymer.2017.01.067.
Huq, Abul F., Ammar, Ali, Al-Enizi, Abdullah M., & Karim, Alamgir. In-situ orientation and crystal growth kinetics of P3HT in drop cast P3HT:PCBM films. United Kingdom. doi:10.1016/j.polymer.2017.01.067.
Huq, Abul F., Ammar, Ali, Al-Enizi, Abdullah M., and Karim, Alamgir. Wed . "In-situ orientation and crystal growth kinetics of P3HT in drop cast P3HT:PCBM films". United Kingdom. doi:10.1016/j.polymer.2017.01.067.
@article{osti_1415889,
title = {In-situ orientation and crystal growth kinetics of P3HT in drop cast P3HT:PCBM films},
author = {Huq, Abul F. and Ammar, Ali and Al-Enizi, Abdullah M. and Karim, Alamgir},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1016/j.polymer.2017.01.067},
journal = {Polymer},
number = C,
volume = 113,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {Wed Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1016/j.polymer.2017.01.067

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 1work
Citation information provided by
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  • Initial dissolution kinetics at orthoclase (001) and (010) cleavage surfaces were measured for {approx}{approx}2 to 7 monolayers as a function of temperature using in situ X-ray reflectivity. The sensitivity of X-ray reflectivity to probe mineral dissolution is discussed, including the applicability of this approach for different dissolution processes and the range of dissolution rates ({approx}10-12 to 10-6 mol/m2/sec) that can be measured. Measurements were performed at pH 12.9 for the (001) surface and at pH 1.1 for the (001) and (010) surfaces at temperatures between 46 and 83 C. Dissolution at pH 12.9 showed a temperature-invariant process with an apparentmore » activation energy of 65 {+-} 7 kJ/mol for the (001) cleavage surface consistent with previous powder dissolution results. Dissolution at pH 1.1 of the (001) and (010) surfaces revealed a similar process for both surfaces, with apparent activation energies of 87 {+-} 7 and 41 {+-} 7 kJ/mol, respectively, but with systematic differences in the dissolution process as a function of temperature. Longer-term measurements (five monolayers) show that the initial rates reported here at acidic pH are greater than steady-state rates by a factor of 2. Apparent activation energies at acidic pH differ substantially from powder dissolution results for K-feldspar; the present results bracket the value derived from powder dissolution measurements. The difference in apparent activation energies for the (001) and (010) faces at pH 1.1 reveals an anisotropy in dissolution kinetics that depends strongly on temperature. Our results imply a projected {approx}25-fold change in the ratio of dissolution rates for the (001) and (010) surfaces between 25 and 90 C. The dissolution rate of the (001) surface is higher than that of the (010) surface above 51 C and is projected to be lower below this temperature. These results indicate clearly that the kinetics and energetics of orthoclase dissolution at acidic pH depend on crystal orientation. This dependence may reflect the different manifestation of the Al-Si ordering between the T1 and T2 tetrahedral sites at these two crystal faces and can be rationalized in terms of recent theoretical models of mineral dissolution.« less
  • In situ x-ray diffraction has been used to characterize the growth and microstructure of wear protective Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N thin films. The films were deposited onto oxidized Si(100) wafers in a sputter chamber mounted onto a six-circle goniometer located at a synchrotron-radiation beam line. Off-plane and in-plane x-ray diffraction data were recorded in situ during growth, in order to follow the development of microstructure and preferred orientation as a function of film thickness. The measurements were supplemented by ex situ cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy analyses. The films were deposited by reactive cosputtering from metallic Ti and Al targets in Ar/N{submore » 2} gas mixtures at substrate temperatures of 150 and 300 deg. C, substrate bias voltages of -30 and +10 V, and deposition rates between 0.9 and 0.3 A/s. The film composition was changed between pure TiN and Ti{sub 0.91}Al{sub 0.09}N. Films deposited at higher deposition rates show columnar structure with competitive growth between (001) and (111) crystalline orientation, which slowly evolves into a (111) preferred orientation containing inter- and intracolumn porosities. Reducing the deposition rate to 0.3 A/s leads to an almost complete (001) preferred orientation with reduced surface roughness, practically independent of the deposition temperature. As the stress state of the films remains low for both deposition rates, it is suggested that the ion-to-neutral arrival rate (J{sub I}/J{sub Ti+Al}) determines the texture development rather than the stress. This is corroborated by applying a positive substrate bias, which, by suppressing ion impingement, leads back to an evolving (111) preferred orientation.« less