skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Insights from in-situ X-ray computed tomography during axial impregnation of unidirectional fiber beds

Abstract

In-situ X-ray computed tomography during axial impregnation of unidirectional fiber beds is used to study coupled effects of fluid velocity, fiber movement and preferred flow channeling on permeability. Here, in order to interpret the experimental measurements, a new computational tool for predicting axial permeability of very large 2D arrays of non-uniformly packed fibers is developed. The results show that, when the impregnation velocity is high, full saturation is attained behind the flow front and the fibers rearrange into a less uniform configuration with higher permeability. In contrast, when the velocity is low, fluid flows preferentially in the narrowest channels between fibers, yielding unsaturated permeabilities that are lower than those in the saturated state. Lastly, these insights combined with a new computational tool will enable improved prediction of permeability, ultimately for use in optimization of composite manufacturing via liquid impregnation.

Authors:
 [1];  [1]
  1. Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Materials Dept.
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); US Department of the Navy, Office of Naval Research (ONR); National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1415628
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231; N00014-13-1-0860; 1144085; DMR 1121053
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Composites. Part A, Applied Science and Manufacturing
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 107; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 1359-835X
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; Permeability; CT analysis; Fiber; Fiber rearrangement

Citation Formats

Larson, Natalie M., and Zok, Frank W. Insights from in-situ X-ray computed tomography during axial impregnation of unidirectional fiber beds. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.compositesa.2017.12.024.
Larson, Natalie M., & Zok, Frank W. Insights from in-situ X-ray computed tomography during axial impregnation of unidirectional fiber beds. United States. doi:10.1016/j.compositesa.2017.12.024.
Larson, Natalie M., and Zok, Frank W. 2017. "Insights from in-situ X-ray computed tomography during axial impregnation of unidirectional fiber beds". United States. doi:10.1016/j.compositesa.2017.12.024.
@article{osti_1415628,
title = {Insights from in-situ X-ray computed tomography during axial impregnation of unidirectional fiber beds},
author = {Larson, Natalie M. and Zok, Frank W.},
abstractNote = {In-situ X-ray computed tomography during axial impregnation of unidirectional fiber beds is used to study coupled effects of fluid velocity, fiber movement and preferred flow channeling on permeability. Here, in order to interpret the experimental measurements, a new computational tool for predicting axial permeability of very large 2D arrays of non-uniformly packed fibers is developed. The results show that, when the impregnation velocity is high, full saturation is attained behind the flow front and the fibers rearrange into a less uniform configuration with higher permeability. In contrast, when the velocity is low, fluid flows preferentially in the narrowest channels between fibers, yielding unsaturated permeabilities that are lower than those in the saturated state. Lastly, these insights combined with a new computational tool will enable improved prediction of permeability, ultimately for use in optimization of composite manufacturing via liquid impregnation.},
doi = {10.1016/j.compositesa.2017.12.024},
journal = {Composites. Part A, Applied Science and Manufacturing},
number = C,
volume = 107,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month =
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on December 27, 2018
Publisher's Version of Record

Save / Share:
  • Pore-scale distribution of supercritical CO 2 (scCO 2) exerts significant control on a variety of key hydrologic as well as geochemical processes, including residual trapping and dissolution. Despite such importance, only a small number of experiments have directly characterized the three-dimensional distribution of scCO 2 in geologic materials during the invasion (drainage) process. Here, we present a study which couples dynamic high-resolution synchrotron X-ray micro-computed tomography imaging of a scCO 2/brine system at in situ pressure/temperature conditions with quantitative pore-scale modeling to allow direct validation of a pore-scale description of scCO2 distribution. The experiment combines high-speed synchrotron radiography with tomographymore » to characterize the brine saturated sample, the scCO 2 breakthrough process, and the partially saturated state of a sandstone sample from the Domengine Formation, a regionally extensive unit within the Sacramento Basin (California, USA). The availability of a 3D dataset allowed us to examine correlations between grains and pores morphometric parameters and the actual distribution of scCO 2 in the sample, including the examination of the role of small-scale sedimentary structure on CO2 distribution. The segmented scCO 2/brine volume was also used to validate a simple computational model based on the local thickness concept, able to accurately simulate the distribution of scCO 2 after drainage. The same method was also used to simulate Hg capillary pressure curves with satisfactory results when compared to the measured ones. Finally, this predictive approach, requiring only a tomographic scan of the dry sample, proved to be an effective route for studying processes related to CO 2 invasion structure in geological samples at the pore scale.« less
  • Identification of source positions after implantation is an important step in brachytherapy planning. Reconstruction is traditionally performed from films taken by conventional simulators, but these are gradually being replaced in the clinic by computed tomography (CT) simulators. The present study explored the use of a scout image-based reconstruction algorithm that replaces the use of traditional film, while exhibiting low sensitivity to metal-induced artifacts that can appear in 3D CT methods. In addition, the accuracy of an in-house graphical software implementation of scout-based reconstruction was compared with seed location reconstructions for 2 phantoms by conventional simulator and CT measurements. One phantommore » was constructed using a planar fixed grid of 1.5-mm diameter ball bearings (BBs) with 40-mm spacing. The second was a Fletcher-Suit applicator embedded in Styrofoam (Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI) with one 3.2-mm-diameter BB inserted into each of 6 surrounding holes. Conventional simulator, kilovoltage CT (kVCT), megavoltage CT, and scout-based methods were evaluated by their ability to calculate the distance between seeds (40 mm for the fixed grid, 30-120 mm in Fletcher-Suit). All methods were able to reconstruct the fixed grid distances with an average deviation of <1%. The worst single deviations (approximately 6%) were exhibited in the 2 volumetric CT methods. In the Fletcher-Suit phantom, the intermodality agreement was within approximately 3%, with the conventional sim measuring marginally larger distances, with kVCT the smallest. All of the established reconstruction methods exhibited similar abilities to detect the distances between BBs. The 3D CT-based methods, with lower axial resolution, showed more variation, particularly with the smaller BBs. With a software implementation, scout-based reconstruction is an appealing approach because it simplifies data acquisition over film-based reconstruction without requiring any specialized equipment and does not carry risk of misreads caused by artifacts.« less
  • Thirty patients with acute thoracic, lumbar, or thoracolumbar fractures, dislocations, or fracture-dislocations were evaluated with standard radiographs, conventional polytomography, and computerized axial tomography. The resulting ninety studies were coded, randomized, and independently interpreted by three radiologists. The diagnostic accuracy of the interpretations based on the computerized tomography scans combined with standard radiographs equaled that of the interpretations based on just the tomograms in the evaluation of fractures of posterior elements. In addition, computerized tomography was superior to the other methods in demonstrating impingement on the neural canal as well as injuries to other organ systems. Also, when compared with conventionalmore » polytomography, computerized tomography could be completed with less risk to the patient. Researchers concluded that computerized tomography should replace conventional polytomography as the initial study to augment standard radiographs in the assessment of thoracic and lumbar fractures. Conventional polytomography should be reserved for patients in whom precise evaluation of the pars interarticularis is deemed necessary.« less
  • Purpose: To investigate CT number (CTN) changes in gross tumor volume (GTV) and organ at risk (OAR) according to daily diagnostic-quality CT acquired during CT-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy for head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. Methods and Materials: Computed tomography scans acquired using a CT-on-rails during daily CT-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy for 15 patients with stage II to IVa squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were analyzed. The GTV, parotid glands, spinal cord, and nonspecified tissue were generated on each selected daily CT. The changes in CTN distributions and the mean and mode values were collected.more » Pearson analysis was used to assess the correlation between the CTN change, organ volume reduction, and delivered radiation dose. Results: Volume and CTN changes for GTV and parotid glands can be observed during radiation therapy delivery for HNC. The mean (±SD) CTNs in GTV and ipsi- and contralateral parotid glands were reduced by 6 ± 10, 8 ± 7, and 11 ± 10 Hounsfield units, respectively, for all patients studied. The mean CTN changes in both spinal cord and nonspecified tissue were almost invisible (<2 Hounsfield units). For 2 patients studied, the absolute mean CTN changes in GTV and parotid glands were strongly correlated with the dose delivered (P<.001 and P<.05, respectively). For the correlation between CTN reductions and delivered isodose bins for parotid glands, the Pearson coefficient varied from −0.98 (P<.001) in regions with low-dose bins to 0.96 (P<.001) in high-dose bins and were patient specific. Conclusions: The CTN can be reduced in tumor and parotid glands during the course of radiation therapy for HNC. There was a fair correlation between CTN reduction and radiation doses for a subset of patients, whereas the correlation between CTN reductions and volume reductions in GTV and parotid glands were weak. More studies are needed to understand the mechanism for the radiation-induced CTN changes.« less