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Title: Low-Temperature Combustion of High Octane Fuels in a Gasoline Compression Ignition Engine

Abstract

Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) has been shown as one of the advanced combustion concepts that could potentially provide a pathway to achieve cleaner and more efficient combustion engines. Fuel and air in GCI are not fully premixed as compared to homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) which is a completely kinetic-controlled combustion system. Therefore, the combustion phasing can be controlled by the time of injection, usually post injection in a multiple-injection scheme, to mitigate combustion noise. Gasoline fuels ignite more difficult than Diesel. The autoignition quality of gasoline can be indicated by research octane number (RON). Fuels with high octane tend to have more resistance to auto-ignition, hence more time for fuel-air mixing. In this study, three fuels, namely, Aromatic, Alkylate, and E30, with similar RON value of 98 but different hydrocarbon compositions were tested in a multi-cylinder engine under GCI combustion mode. Considerations of EGR, start of injection (SOI), and boost were investigated to study the sensitivity of dilution, local stratification, and reactivity of the charge, respectively, for each fuel. Combustion phasing was kept constant during the experiments to the changes in ignition and combustion process before and after 50% of the fuel mass is burned. Emission characteristics at differentmore » levels of EGR and lambda were revealed for all fuels with E30 having the lowest filter smoke number (FSN) and was also most sensitive to the change in dilution. Reasonably low combustion noise (< 90 dB) and stable combustion (COVIMEP < 3%) were maintained during the experiments. The second part of this paper contains visualization of the combustion process obtained from endoscope imaging for each fuel at selected conditions. Soot radiation signal from GCI combustion were strong during late injection, and also more intense at low EGR conditions. Furthermore, soot/temperature profiles indicated only the high-temperature combustion period, while cylinder pressure-based heat release rate (HRR) showed a two-stage combustion phenomenon.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [2]
  1. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
  2. Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Vehicle Technologies Office (EE-3V); USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Bioenergy Technologies Office (EE-3B)
OSTI Identifier:
1415476
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Frontiers in Mechanical Engineering
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 2297-3079
Publisher:
Frontiers Research Foundation
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 33 ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS; endoscope imaging; gasoline compression ignition; high octane; internal combustion engine

Citation Formats

Cung, Khanh Duc, Ciatti, Stephen Anthony, Tanov, Slavey, and Andersson, Oivind. Low-Temperature Combustion of High Octane Fuels in a Gasoline Compression Ignition Engine. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3389/fmech.2017.00022.
Cung, Khanh Duc, Ciatti, Stephen Anthony, Tanov, Slavey, & Andersson, Oivind. Low-Temperature Combustion of High Octane Fuels in a Gasoline Compression Ignition Engine. United States. doi:10.3389/fmech.2017.00022.
Cung, Khanh Duc, Ciatti, Stephen Anthony, Tanov, Slavey, and Andersson, Oivind. 2017. "Low-Temperature Combustion of High Octane Fuels in a Gasoline Compression Ignition Engine". United States. doi:10.3389/fmech.2017.00022. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1415476.
@article{osti_1415476,
title = {Low-Temperature Combustion of High Octane Fuels in a Gasoline Compression Ignition Engine},
author = {Cung, Khanh Duc and Ciatti, Stephen Anthony and Tanov, Slavey and Andersson, Oivind},
abstractNote = {Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) has been shown as one of the advanced combustion concepts that could potentially provide a pathway to achieve cleaner and more efficient combustion engines. Fuel and air in GCI are not fully premixed as compared to homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) which is a completely kinetic-controlled combustion system. Therefore, the combustion phasing can be controlled by the time of injection, usually post injection in a multiple-injection scheme, to mitigate combustion noise. Gasoline fuels ignite more difficult than Diesel. The autoignition quality of gasoline can be indicated by research octane number (RON). Fuels with high octane tend to have more resistance to auto-ignition, hence more time for fuel-air mixing. In this study, three fuels, namely, Aromatic, Alkylate, and E30, with similar RON value of 98 but different hydrocarbon compositions were tested in a multi-cylinder engine under GCI combustion mode. Considerations of EGR, start of injection (SOI), and boost were investigated to study the sensitivity of dilution, local stratification, and reactivity of the charge, respectively, for each fuel. Combustion phasing was kept constant during the experiments to the changes in ignition and combustion process before and after 50% of the fuel mass is burned. Emission characteristics at different levels of EGR and lambda were revealed for all fuels with E30 having the lowest filter smoke number (FSN) and was also most sensitive to the change in dilution. Reasonably low combustion noise (< 90 dB) and stable combustion (COVIMEP < 3%) were maintained during the experiments. The second part of this paper contains visualization of the combustion process obtained from endoscope imaging for each fuel at selected conditions. Soot radiation signal from GCI combustion were strong during late injection, and also more intense at low EGR conditions. Furthermore, soot/temperature profiles indicated only the high-temperature combustion period, while cylinder pressure-based heat release rate (HRR) showed a two-stage combustion phenomenon.},
doi = {10.3389/fmech.2017.00022},
journal = {Frontiers in Mechanical Engineering},
number = ,
volume = 3,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month =
}

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  • Gasoline compression ignition concepts with the majority of the fuel being introduced early in the cycle are known as partially premixed combustion (PPC). Previous research on single- and multi-cylinder engines has shown that PPC has the potential for high thermal efficiency with low NOx and soot emissions. A variety of fuel injection strategies has been proposed in the literature. These injection strategies aim to create a partially stratified charge to simultaneously reduce NOx and soot emissions while maintaining some level of control over the combustion process through the fuel delivery system. The impact of the direct injection strategy to createmore » a premixed charge of fuel and air has not previously been explored, and its impact on engine efficiency and emissions is not well understood. This paper explores the effect of sweeping the direct injected pilot timing from -91° to -324° ATDC, which is just after the exhaust valve closes for the engine used in this study. During the sweep, the pilot injection consistently contained 65% of the total fuel (based on command duration ratio), and the main injection timing was adjusted slightly to maintain combustion phasing near top dead center. A modern four cylinder, 1.9 L diesel engine with a variable geometry turbocharger, high pressure common rail injection system, wide included angle injectors, and variable swirl actuation was used in this study. The pistons were modified to an open bowl configuration suitable for highly premixed combustion modes. The stock diesel injection system was unmodified, and the gasoline fuel was doped with a lubricity additive to protect the high pressure fuel pump and the injectors. The study was conducted at a fixed speed/load condition of 2000 rpm and 4.0 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP). The pilot injection timing sweep was conducted at different intake manifold pressures, swirl levels, and fuel injection GTP-15-1067, Dempsey 2 pressures. The gasoline used in this study has relatively high fuel reactivity with a research octane number of 68. The results of this experimental campaign indicate that the highest brake thermal efficiency and lowest emissions are achieved simultaneously with the earliest pilot injection timings (i.e., during the intake stroke).« less
  • Many research studies have shown that low temperature combustion in compression ignition engines has the ability to yield ultra-low NOx and soot emissions while maintaining high thermal efficiency. To achieve low temperature combustion, sufficient mixing time between the fuel and air in a globally dilute environment is required, thereby avoiding fuel-rich regions and reducing peak combustion temperatures, which significantly reduces soot and NOx formation, respectively. It has been demonstrated that achieving low temperature combustion with diesel fuel over a wide range of conditions is difficult because of its properties, namely, low volatility and high chemical reactivity. On the contrary, gasolinemore » has a high volatility and low chemical reactivity, meaning it is easier to achieve the amount of premixing time required prior to autoignition to achieve low temperature combustion. In order to achieve low temperature combustion while meeting other constraints, such as low pressure rise rates and maintaining control over the timing of combustion, in-cylinder fuel stratification has been widely investigated for gasoline low temperature combustion engines. The level of fuel stratification is, in reality, a continuum ranging from fully premixed (i.e. homogeneous charge of fuel and air) to heavily stratified, heterogeneous operation, such as diesel combustion. However, to illustrate the impact of fuel stratification on gasoline compression ignition, the authors have identified three representative operating strategies: partial, moderate, and heavy fuel stratification. Thus, this article provides an overview and perspective of the current research efforts to develop engine operating strategies for achieving gasoline low temperature combustion in a compression ignition engine via fuel stratification. In this paper, computational fluid dynamics modeling of the in-cylinder processes during the closed valve portion of the cycle was used to illustrate the opportunities and challenges associated with the various fuel stratification levels.« less
  • The focus of the present paper was to characterize Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) using a single-fuel approach of gasoline and gasoline mixed with a commercially available cetane improver on a multi-cylinder engine. RCCI was achieved by port-injecting a certification grade 96 research octane gasoline and direct-injecting the same gasoline mixed with various levels of a cetane improver, 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN). The EHN volume percentages investigated in the direct-injected fuel were 10, 5, and 2.5%. The combustion phasing controllability and emissions of the different fueling combinations were characterized at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure over amore » variety of parametric investigations including direct injection timing, premixed gasoline percentage, and intake temperature. Comparisons were made to gasoline/diesel RCCI operation on the same engine platform at nominally the same operating condition. The experiments were conducted on a modern four cylinder light-duty diesel engine that was modified with a port-fuel injection system while maintaining the stock direct injection fuel system. The pistons were modified for highly premixed operation and feature an open shallow bowl design. The results indicate that the authority to control the combustion phasing through the fuel delivery strategy (e.g., direct injection timing or premixed gasoline percentage) is not a strong function of the EHN concentration in the direct-injected fuel. It was also observed that NOx emissions are a strong function of the global EHN concentration in-cylinder and the combustion phasing. Finally, in general, NOx emissions are significantly elevated for gasoline/gasoline+EHN operation compared with gasoline/diesel RCCI operation at a given operating condition.« less
  • Low temperature combustion engine technologies are being investigated for high efficiency and low emissions. However, such engine technologies often produce higher engine-out hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, and their operating range is limited by the fuel properties. In this study, two different fuels, a US market gasoline containing 10% ethanol (RON 92 E10) and a higher reactivity gasoline (RON 80 E0), were compared on a Delphi’s second generation Gasoline Direct-Injection Compression Ignition (Gen 2.0 GDCI) multi-cylinder engine. The engine was evaluated at three operating points ranging from a light load condition (800 rpm/2 bar IMEP g) to mediummore » load conditions (1500 rpm/6 bar and 2000 rpm/10 bar IMEP g). The engine was equipped with two oxidation catalysts, between which was located the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) inlet. Samples were taken at engine-out, between the catalysts, and at tailpipe locations. In addition, part of the raw exhaust was diluted and sampled for HC speciation. Canisters and sorbent membranes were used to collect volatile HCs and semi-volatile HCs, respectively. Di-nitrophenyl hydrazine (DNPH) cartridges were also used for collecting oxygenated species. Results showed overall lower HC emissions with the RON 80 E0 fuel compared to the RON 92 E10 fuel. For both fuels, the percentage of aromatic HCs was higher in the exhaust than in the fuels themselves. High engine-out aldehyde and ketone emissions were observed for both fuels. The reported HC speciation information can be useful for the development of a robust emission control system.« less
  • Reactivity-controlled compression ignition (RCCI) is a dual-fuel variant of low-temperature combustion that uses in-cylinder fuel stratification to control the rate of reactions occurring during combustion. Using fuels of varying reactivity (autoignition propensity), gradients of reactivity can be established within the charge, allowing for control over combustion phasing and duration for high efficiency while achieving low NO x and soot emissions. In practice, this is typically accomplished by premixing a low-reactivity fuel, such as gasoline, with early port or direct injection, and by direct injecting a high-reactivity fuel, such as diesel, at an intermediate timing before top dead center. Both themore » relative quantity and the timing of the injection(s) of high-reactivity fuel can be used to tailor the combustion process and thereby the efficiency and emissions under RCCI. While many combinations of high- and low-reactivity fuels have been successfully demonstrated to enable RCCI, there is a lack of fundamental understanding of what properties, chemical or physical, are most important or desirable for extending operation to both lower and higher loads and reducing emissions of unreacted fuel and CO. This is partly due to the fact that important variables such as temperature, equivalence ratio, and reactivity change simultaneously in both a local and a global sense with changes in the injection of the high-reactivity fuel. This study uses primary reference fuels iso-octane and n-heptane, which have similar physical properties but much different autoignition properties, to create both external and in-cylinder fuel blends that allow for the effects of reactivity stratification to be isolated and quantified. This study is part of a collaborative effort with researchers at Sandia National Laboratories who are investigating the same fuels and conditions of interest in an optical engine. Furthermore, this collaboration aims to improve our fundamental understanding of what fuel properties are required to further develop advanced combustion modes.« less