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Title: Plant Uptake of Atmospheric Carbonyl Sulfide in Coast Redwood Forests: Carbonyl Sulfide Sink in Coast Redwoods

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [4];  [2];  [3];  [5];  [6]; ORCiD logo [7]; ORCiD logo [8];  [9]; ORCiD logo [10]; ORCiD logo [11];  [11]; ORCiD logo [12]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Environmental Studies Department, University of California, Santa Cruz CA USA
  2. Sierra Nevada Research Institute, University of California, Merced CA USA
  3. Department of Global Ecology, Carnegie Institution, Stanford CA USA
  4. Sierra Nevada Research Institute, University of California, Merced CA USA, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore CA USA
  5. Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles CA USA
  6. Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley CA USA
  7. Global Monitoring Division, NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder CO USA
  8. Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins CO USA
  9. California Air Resources Board, Sacramento CA USA
  10. Department of Atmospheric Science, University of Bremen, Bremen Germany
  11. Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica MA USA
  12. School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard, Cambridge MA USA
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1415235
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-07NA27344; AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research. Biogeosciences
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 122; Journal Issue: 12; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2018-01-13 04:01:34; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-8953
Publisher:
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Campbell, J. E., Whelan, M. E., Berry, J. A., Hilton, T. W., Zumkehr, A., Stinecipher, J., Lu, Y., Kornfeld, A., Seibt, U., Dawson, T. E., Montzka, S. A., Baker, I. T., Kulkarni, S., Wang, Y., Herndon, S. C., Zahniser, M. S., Commane, R., and Loik, M. E. Plant Uptake of Atmospheric Carbonyl Sulfide in Coast Redwood Forests: Carbonyl Sulfide Sink in Coast Redwoods. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1002/2016JG003703.
Campbell, J. E., Whelan, M. E., Berry, J. A., Hilton, T. W., Zumkehr, A., Stinecipher, J., Lu, Y., Kornfeld, A., Seibt, U., Dawson, T. E., Montzka, S. A., Baker, I. T., Kulkarni, S., Wang, Y., Herndon, S. C., Zahniser, M. S., Commane, R., & Loik, M. E. Plant Uptake of Atmospheric Carbonyl Sulfide in Coast Redwood Forests: Carbonyl Sulfide Sink in Coast Redwoods. United States. doi:10.1002/2016JG003703.
Campbell, J. E., Whelan, M. E., Berry, J. A., Hilton, T. W., Zumkehr, A., Stinecipher, J., Lu, Y., Kornfeld, A., Seibt, U., Dawson, T. E., Montzka, S. A., Baker, I. T., Kulkarni, S., Wang, Y., Herndon, S. C., Zahniser, M. S., Commane, R., and Loik, M. E. 2017. "Plant Uptake of Atmospheric Carbonyl Sulfide in Coast Redwood Forests: Carbonyl Sulfide Sink in Coast Redwoods". United States. doi:10.1002/2016JG003703.
@article{osti_1415235,
title = {Plant Uptake of Atmospheric Carbonyl Sulfide in Coast Redwood Forests: Carbonyl Sulfide Sink in Coast Redwoods},
author = {Campbell, J. E. and Whelan, M. E. and Berry, J. A. and Hilton, T. W. and Zumkehr, A. and Stinecipher, J. and Lu, Y. and Kornfeld, A. and Seibt, U. and Dawson, T. E. and Montzka, S. A. and Baker, I. T. and Kulkarni, S. and Wang, Y. and Herndon, S. C. and Zahniser, M. S. and Commane, R. and Loik, M. E.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1002/2016JG003703},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research. Biogeosciences},
number = 12,
volume = 122,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month =
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on December 29, 2018
Publisher's Accepted Manuscript

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  • Atmospheric and dissolved carbonyl sulfide (COS) concentrations were measured on 473 samples during three cruises into the northeast Atlantic Ocean. The cruises took place in April/May 1992, January 1994, and September 1994, covering three seasons. In January 1994, persistent undersaturation of COS in seawater with respect to the atmosphere was observed. This is the first data set to show a strong and persistent undersaturation with the mean saturation ratio (SR) being 46% and the standard deviation 13%. In April 1992. the seawater was slightly supersaturated, with a SR of 126{plus_minus}58%. Only in September 1994, strong supersaturation of 214{plus_minus}86% was observed.more » The measured air concentrations were relatively uniform, averaging 410{plus_minus}67 pptv in January 1994, 466{plus_minus}42 pptv in April 1992, and 396{plus_minus}18 pptv in September 1994. Sea-to-air fluxes of COS were estimated using three different exchange models. We obtained moderate to low COS emissions in September (19 to 33 nmol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}) and April/May (5 to 10 nmol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}), in contrast to a significant flux from the atmosphere into the ocean in January (-76 to -31 nmol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}). The strong seasonal variation of COS emissions with the possibility of reversed fluxes into the ocean during winter must be considered in future oceanic source estimates. The possible effect of an open ocean winter sink on global marine emissions of COS could be a reduction by some 10-15%. 23 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.« less
  • Measurements of atmospheric dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and carbon disulfide (CS2) were conducted over the Atlantic Ocean on board the NASA Electra aircraft during the Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (CITE 3) project using the electron capture sulfur detector (ECD-S). The system employed cryogenic preconcentration of air samples, gas chromatographic separation, catalytic fluorination, and electron capture detection. Samples collected for DMS analysis were scrubbed of oxidants with NaOH impregnated glass fiber filters to preconcentration. The detection limits (DL) of the system for COS, DMS, and CS2 were 5, 5, and 2 ppt, respectively. COS concentrations ranged from 404more » to 603 ppt with a mean of 489 ppt for measurements over the North Atlantic Ocean (31 deg N to 41 deg N), and from 395 to 437 ppt with a mean of 419 ppt for measurements over the Tropical Atlantic Ocean (11 deg S to 2 deg N). DMS concentrations in the lower marine boundary layer, below 600-m altitude, ranged from below DL to 150 ppt from flights over the North Atlantic, and from 9 to 104 ppt over the Tropical Atlantic. CS2 concentrations ranged from below DL to 29 ppt over the North Atlantic. Almost all CS2 measurements over the Tropical Atlantic were below DL.« less
  • Cited by 21
  • Carbonyl sulfide (COS) measurements are one of the emerging tools to better quantify gross primary production (GPP), the largest flux in the global carbon cycle. COS is a gas with a similar structure to CO 2; COS uptake is thought to be a proxy for GPP. However, soils are a potential source or sink of COS. This study presents a framework for understanding soil–COS interactions. Excluding wetlands, most of the few observations of isolated soils that have been made show small uptake of atmospheric COS. Recently, a series of studies at an agricultural site in the central United States foundmore » soil COS production under hot conditions an order of magnitude greater than fluxes at other sites. To investigate the extent of this phenomenon, soils were collected from five new sites and incubated in a variety of soil moisture and temperature states. We found that soils from a desert, an oak savannah, a deciduous forest, and a rainforest exhibited small COS fluxes, behavior resembling previous studies. However, soil from an agricultural site in Illinois, >800 km away from the initial central US study site, demonstrated comparably large soil fluxes under similar conditions. These new data suggest that, for the most part, soil COS interaction is negligible compared to plant uptake of COS. We present a model that anticipates the large agricultural soil fluxes so that they may be taken into account. Furthermore, while COS air-monitoring data are consistent with the dominance of plant uptake, improved interpretation of these data should incorporate the soil flux parameterizations suggested here.« less
  • Stomatal conductance influences both photosynthesis and transpiration, thereby coupling the carbon and water cycles and affecting surface–atmosphere energy exchange. The environmental response of stomatal conductance has been measured mainly on the leaf scale, and theoretical canopy models are relied on to upscale stomatal conductance for application in terrestrial ecosystem models and climate prediction. Here we estimate stomatal conductance and associated transpiration in a temperate deciduous forest directly on the canopy scale via two independent approaches: (i) from heat and water vapor exchange and (ii) from carbonyl sulfide (OCS) uptake. We use the eddy covariance method to measure the net ecosystem–atmosphere exchange ofmore » OCS, and we use a flux-gradient approach to separate canopy OCS uptake from soil OCS uptake. We find that the seasonal and diurnal patterns of canopy stomatal conductance obtained by the two approaches agree (to within ±6 % diurnally), validating both methods. Canopy stomatal conductance increases linearly with above-canopy light intensity (in contrast to the leaf scale, where stomatal conductance shows declining marginal increases) and otherwise depends only on the diffuse light fraction, the canopy-average leaf-to-air water vapor gradient, and the total leaf area. Based on stomatal conductance, we partition evapotranspiration (ET) and find that evaporation increases from 0 to 40 % of ET as the growing season progresses, driven primarily by rising soil temperature and secondarily by rainfall. Counterintuitively, evaporation peaks at the time of year when the soil is dry and the air is moist. Our method of ET partitioning avoids concerns about mismatched scales or measurement types because both ET and transpiration are derived from eddy covariance data. Neither of the two ecosystem models tested predicts the observed dynamics of evaporation or transpiration, indicating that ET partitioning such as that provided here is needed to further model development and improve our understanding of carbon and water cycling.« less