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Title: Direct Probing of Polarization Charge at Nanoscale Level

Abstract

Ferroelectric materials possess spontaneous polarization that can be used for multiple applications. Owing to a long-term development of reducing the sizes of devices, the preparation of ferroelectric materials and devices is entering the nanometer-scale regime. In order to evaluate the ferroelectricity, there is a need to investigate the polarization charge at the nanoscale. Nonetheless, it is generally accepted that the detection of polarization charges using a conventional conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) without a top electrode is not feasible because the nanometer-scale radius of an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip yields a very low signal-to-noise ratio. But, the detection is unrelated to the radius of an AFM tip and, in fact, a matter of the switched area. In this work, the direct probing of the polarization charge at the nanoscale is demonstrated using the positive-up-negative-down method based on the conventional CAFM approach without additional corrections or circuits to reduce the parasitic capacitance. The polarization charge densities of 73.7 and 119.0 µC cm -2 are successfully probed in ferroelectric nanocapacitors and thin films, respectively. The results we obtained show the feasibility of the evaluation of polarization charge at the nanoscale and provide a new guideline for evaluating the ferroelectricity at themore » nanoscale.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3];  [4];  [3]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [5];  [6]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Republic of Korea). School of Advanced Materials and Engineering
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division
  3. Korea Research Inst. of Standards and Science (KRISS), Daejeon (South Korea)
  4. Univ. of Cologne (Germany). Physics Inst.
  5. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences
  6. Univ. of Warwick, Coventry (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1414691
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Advanced Materials; Journal Volume: 30; Journal Issue: 1
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; conductive atomic force microscopy; nanoscale; piezoresponse force microscopy; polarization charge; positive-up-negative-down

Citation Formats

Kwon, Owoong, Seol, Daehee, Lee, Dongkyu, Han, Hee, Lindfors-Vrejoiu, Ionela, Lee, Woo, Jesse, Stephen, Lee, Ho Nyung, Kalinin, Sergei V., Alexe, Marin, and Kim, Yunseok. Direct Probing of Polarization Charge at Nanoscale Level. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1002/adma.201703675.
Kwon, Owoong, Seol, Daehee, Lee, Dongkyu, Han, Hee, Lindfors-Vrejoiu, Ionela, Lee, Woo, Jesse, Stephen, Lee, Ho Nyung, Kalinin, Sergei V., Alexe, Marin, & Kim, Yunseok. Direct Probing of Polarization Charge at Nanoscale Level. United States. doi:10.1002/adma.201703675.
Kwon, Owoong, Seol, Daehee, Lee, Dongkyu, Han, Hee, Lindfors-Vrejoiu, Ionela, Lee, Woo, Jesse, Stephen, Lee, Ho Nyung, Kalinin, Sergei V., Alexe, Marin, and Kim, Yunseok. Tue . "Direct Probing of Polarization Charge at Nanoscale Level". United States. doi:10.1002/adma.201703675.
@article{osti_1414691,
title = {Direct Probing of Polarization Charge at Nanoscale Level},
author = {Kwon, Owoong and Seol, Daehee and Lee, Dongkyu and Han, Hee and Lindfors-Vrejoiu, Ionela and Lee, Woo and Jesse, Stephen and Lee, Ho Nyung and Kalinin, Sergei V. and Alexe, Marin and Kim, Yunseok},
abstractNote = {Ferroelectric materials possess spontaneous polarization that can be used for multiple applications. Owing to a long-term development of reducing the sizes of devices, the preparation of ferroelectric materials and devices is entering the nanometer-scale regime. In order to evaluate the ferroelectricity, there is a need to investigate the polarization charge at the nanoscale. Nonetheless, it is generally accepted that the detection of polarization charges using a conventional conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) without a top electrode is not feasible because the nanometer-scale radius of an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip yields a very low signal-to-noise ratio. But, the detection is unrelated to the radius of an AFM tip and, in fact, a matter of the switched area. In this work, the direct probing of the polarization charge at the nanoscale is demonstrated using the positive-up-negative-down method based on the conventional CAFM approach without additional corrections or circuits to reduce the parasitic capacitance. The polarization charge densities of 73.7 and 119.0 µC cm-2 are successfully probed in ferroelectric nanocapacitors and thin films, respectively. The results we obtained show the feasibility of the evaluation of polarization charge at the nanoscale and provide a new guideline for evaluating the ferroelectricity at the nanoscale.},
doi = {10.1002/adma.201703675},
journal = {Advanced Materials},
number = 1,
volume = 30,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Nov 14 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Tue Nov 14 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}