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Title: Cascading Failures as Continuous Phase-Space Transitions

Abstract

In network systems, a local perturbation can amplify as it propagates, potentially leading to a large-scale cascading failure. We derive a continuous model to advance our understanding of cascading failures in power-grid networks. The model accounts for both the failure of transmission lines and the desynchronization of power generators and incorporates the transient dynamics between successive steps of the cascade. In this framework, we show that a cascade event is a phase-space transition from an equilibrium state with high energy to an equilibrium state with lower energy, which can be suitably described in a closed form using a global Hamiltonian-like function. From this function, we show that a perturbed system cannot always reach the equilibrium state predicted by quasi-steady-state cascade models, which would correspond to a reduced number of failures, and may instead undergo a larger cascade. We also show that, in the presence of two or more perturbations, the outcome depends strongly on the order and timing of the individual perturbations. These results offer new insights into the current understanding of cascading dynamics, with potential implications for control interventions.

Authors:
 [1];  [2]
  1. Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
  2. Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern Inst. on Complex Systems
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy (ARPA-E)
OSTI Identifier:
1414576
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1413368
Grant/Contract Number:
AR0000702
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physical Review Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 119; Journal Issue: 24; Journal ID: ISSN 0031-9007
Publisher:
American Physical Society (APS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS

Citation Formats

Yang, Yang, and Motter, Adilson E. Cascading Failures as Continuous Phase-Space Transitions. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.248302.
Yang, Yang, & Motter, Adilson E. Cascading Failures as Continuous Phase-Space Transitions. United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.248302.
Yang, Yang, and Motter, Adilson E. Thu . "Cascading Failures as Continuous Phase-Space Transitions". United States. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.248302.
@article{osti_1414576,
title = {Cascading Failures as Continuous Phase-Space Transitions},
author = {Yang, Yang and Motter, Adilson E.},
abstractNote = {In network systems, a local perturbation can amplify as it propagates, potentially leading to a large-scale cascading failure. We derive a continuous model to advance our understanding of cascading failures in power-grid networks. The model accounts for both the failure of transmission lines and the desynchronization of power generators and incorporates the transient dynamics between successive steps of the cascade. In this framework, we show that a cascade event is a phase-space transition from an equilibrium state with high energy to an equilibrium state with lower energy, which can be suitably described in a closed form using a global Hamiltonian-like function. From this function, we show that a perturbed system cannot always reach the equilibrium state predicted by quasi-steady-state cascade models, which would correspond to a reduced number of failures, and may instead undergo a larger cascade. We also show that, in the presence of two or more perturbations, the outcome depends strongly on the order and timing of the individual perturbations. These results offer new insights into the current understanding of cascading dynamics, with potential implications for control interventions.},
doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.248302},
journal = {Physical Review Letters},
number = 24,
volume = 119,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Dec 14 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Thu Dec 14 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on December 14, 2018
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