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Title: Minimum information about a single amplified genome (MISAG) and a metagenome-assembled genome (MIMAG) of bacteria and archaea

Abstract

The number of genomes from uncultivated microbes will soon surpass the number of isolate genomes in public databases (Hugenholtz, Skarshewski, & Parks, 2016). Technological advancements in high-throughput sequencing and assembly, including single-cell genomics and the computational extraction of genomes from metagenomes (GFMs), are largely responsible. Here we propose community standards for reporting the Minimum Information about a Single-Cell Genome (MIxS-SCG) and Minimum Information about Genomes extracted From Metagenomes (MIxS-GFM) specific for Bacteria and Archaea. The standards have been developed in the context of the International Genomics Standards Consortium (GSC) community (Field et al., 2014) and can be viewed as a supplement to other GSC checklists including the Minimum Information about a Genome Sequence (MIGS), Minimum information about a Metagenomic Sequence(s) (MIMS) (Field et al., 2008) and Minimum Information about a Marker Gene Sequence (MIMARKS) (P. Yilmaz et al., 2011). Community-wide acceptance of MIxS-SCG and MIxS-GFM for Bacteria and Archaea will enable broad comparative analyses of genomes from the majority of taxa that remain uncultivated, improving our understanding of microbial function, ecology, and evolution.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1414520
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-125978
Journal ID: ISSN 1087-0156; KP1702030
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Nature Biotechnology; Journal Volume: 35; Journal Issue: 8
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Bowers, Robert M., Kyrpides, Nikos C., Stepanauskas, Ramunas, Harmon-Smith, Miranda, Doud, Devin, Reddy, T. B. K., Schulz, Frederik, Jarett, Jessica, Rivers, Adam R., Eloe-Fadrosh, Emiley A., Tringe, Susannah G., Ivanova, Natalia N., Copeland, Alex, Clum, Alicia, Becraft, Eric D., Malmstrom, Rex R., Birren, Bruce, Podar, Mircea, Bork, Peer, Weinstock, George M., Garrity, George M., Dodsworth, Jeremy A., Yooseph, Shibu, Sutton, Granger, Glöckner, Frank O., Gilbert, Jack A., Nelson, William C., Hallam, Steven J., Jungbluth, Sean P., Ettema, Thijs J. G., Tighe, Scott, Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T., Liu, Wen-Tso, Baker, Brett J., Rattei, Thomas, Eisen, Jonathan A., Hedlund, Brian, McMahon, Katherine D., Fierer, Noah, Knight, Rob, Finn, Rob, Cochrane, Guy, Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene, Tyson, Gene W., Rinke, Christian, Kyrpides, Nikos C., Schriml, Lynn, Garrity, George M., Hugenholtz, Philip, Sutton, Granger, Yilmaz, Pelin, Meyer, Folker, Glöckner, Frank O., Gilbert, Jack A., Knight, Rob, Finn, Rob, Cochrane, Guy, Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene, Lapidus, Alla, Meyer, Folker, Yilmaz, Pelin, Parks, Donovan H., Eren, A. M., Schriml, Lynn, Banfield, Jillian F., Hugenholtz, Philip, and Woyke, Tanja. Minimum information about a single amplified genome (MISAG) and a metagenome-assembled genome (MIMAG) of bacteria and archaea. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1038/nbt.3893.
Bowers, Robert M., Kyrpides, Nikos C., Stepanauskas, Ramunas, Harmon-Smith, Miranda, Doud, Devin, Reddy, T. B. K., Schulz, Frederik, Jarett, Jessica, Rivers, Adam R., Eloe-Fadrosh, Emiley A., Tringe, Susannah G., Ivanova, Natalia N., Copeland, Alex, Clum, Alicia, Becraft, Eric D., Malmstrom, Rex R., Birren, Bruce, Podar, Mircea, Bork, Peer, Weinstock, George M., Garrity, George M., Dodsworth, Jeremy A., Yooseph, Shibu, Sutton, Granger, Glöckner, Frank O., Gilbert, Jack A., Nelson, William C., Hallam, Steven J., Jungbluth, Sean P., Ettema, Thijs J. G., Tighe, Scott, Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T., Liu, Wen-Tso, Baker, Brett J., Rattei, Thomas, Eisen, Jonathan A., Hedlund, Brian, McMahon, Katherine D., Fierer, Noah, Knight, Rob, Finn, Rob, Cochrane, Guy, Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene, Tyson, Gene W., Rinke, Christian, Kyrpides, Nikos C., Schriml, Lynn, Garrity, George M., Hugenholtz, Philip, Sutton, Granger, Yilmaz, Pelin, Meyer, Folker, Glöckner, Frank O., Gilbert, Jack A., Knight, Rob, Finn, Rob, Cochrane, Guy, Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene, Lapidus, Alla, Meyer, Folker, Yilmaz, Pelin, Parks, Donovan H., Eren, A. M., Schriml, Lynn, Banfield, Jillian F., Hugenholtz, Philip, & Woyke, Tanja. Minimum information about a single amplified genome (MISAG) and a metagenome-assembled genome (MIMAG) of bacteria and archaea. United States. doi:10.1038/nbt.3893.
Bowers, Robert M., Kyrpides, Nikos C., Stepanauskas, Ramunas, Harmon-Smith, Miranda, Doud, Devin, Reddy, T. B. K., Schulz, Frederik, Jarett, Jessica, Rivers, Adam R., Eloe-Fadrosh, Emiley A., Tringe, Susannah G., Ivanova, Natalia N., Copeland, Alex, Clum, Alicia, Becraft, Eric D., Malmstrom, Rex R., Birren, Bruce, Podar, Mircea, Bork, Peer, Weinstock, George M., Garrity, George M., Dodsworth, Jeremy A., Yooseph, Shibu, Sutton, Granger, Glöckner, Frank O., Gilbert, Jack A., Nelson, William C., Hallam, Steven J., Jungbluth, Sean P., Ettema, Thijs J. G., Tighe, Scott, Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T., Liu, Wen-Tso, Baker, Brett J., Rattei, Thomas, Eisen, Jonathan A., Hedlund, Brian, McMahon, Katherine D., Fierer, Noah, Knight, Rob, Finn, Rob, Cochrane, Guy, Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene, Tyson, Gene W., Rinke, Christian, Kyrpides, Nikos C., Schriml, Lynn, Garrity, George M., Hugenholtz, Philip, Sutton, Granger, Yilmaz, Pelin, Meyer, Folker, Glöckner, Frank O., Gilbert, Jack A., Knight, Rob, Finn, Rob, Cochrane, Guy, Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene, Lapidus, Alla, Meyer, Folker, Yilmaz, Pelin, Parks, Donovan H., Eren, A. M., Schriml, Lynn, Banfield, Jillian F., Hugenholtz, Philip, and Woyke, Tanja. 2017. "Minimum information about a single amplified genome (MISAG) and a metagenome-assembled genome (MIMAG) of bacteria and archaea". United States. doi:10.1038/nbt.3893.
@article{osti_1414520,
title = {Minimum information about a single amplified genome (MISAG) and a metagenome-assembled genome (MIMAG) of bacteria and archaea},
author = {Bowers, Robert M. and Kyrpides, Nikos C. and Stepanauskas, Ramunas and Harmon-Smith, Miranda and Doud, Devin and Reddy, T. B. K. and Schulz, Frederik and Jarett, Jessica and Rivers, Adam R. and Eloe-Fadrosh, Emiley A. and Tringe, Susannah G. and Ivanova, Natalia N. and Copeland, Alex and Clum, Alicia and Becraft, Eric D. and Malmstrom, Rex R. and Birren, Bruce and Podar, Mircea and Bork, Peer and Weinstock, George M. and Garrity, George M. and Dodsworth, Jeremy A. and Yooseph, Shibu and Sutton, Granger and Glöckner, Frank O. and Gilbert, Jack A. and Nelson, William C. and Hallam, Steven J. and Jungbluth, Sean P. and Ettema, Thijs J. G. and Tighe, Scott and Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T. and Liu, Wen-Tso and Baker, Brett J. and Rattei, Thomas and Eisen, Jonathan A. and Hedlund, Brian and McMahon, Katherine D. and Fierer, Noah and Knight, Rob and Finn, Rob and Cochrane, Guy and Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene and Tyson, Gene W. and Rinke, Christian and Kyrpides, Nikos C. and Schriml, Lynn and Garrity, George M. and Hugenholtz, Philip and Sutton, Granger and Yilmaz, Pelin and Meyer, Folker and Glöckner, Frank O. and Gilbert, Jack A. and Knight, Rob and Finn, Rob and Cochrane, Guy and Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene and Lapidus, Alla and Meyer, Folker and Yilmaz, Pelin and Parks, Donovan H. and Eren, A. M. and Schriml, Lynn and Banfield, Jillian F. and Hugenholtz, Philip and Woyke, Tanja},
abstractNote = {The number of genomes from uncultivated microbes will soon surpass the number of isolate genomes in public databases (Hugenholtz, Skarshewski, & Parks, 2016). Technological advancements in high-throughput sequencing and assembly, including single-cell genomics and the computational extraction of genomes from metagenomes (GFMs), are largely responsible. Here we propose community standards for reporting the Minimum Information about a Single-Cell Genome (MIxS-SCG) and Minimum Information about Genomes extracted From Metagenomes (MIxS-GFM) specific for Bacteria and Archaea. The standards have been developed in the context of the International Genomics Standards Consortium (GSC) community (Field et al., 2014) and can be viewed as a supplement to other GSC checklists including the Minimum Information about a Genome Sequence (MIGS), Minimum information about a Metagenomic Sequence(s) (MIMS) (Field et al., 2008) and Minimum Information about a Marker Gene Sequence (MIMARKS) (P. Yilmaz et al., 2011). Community-wide acceptance of MIxS-SCG and MIxS-GFM for Bacteria and Archaea will enable broad comparative analyses of genomes from the majority of taxa that remain uncultivated, improving our understanding of microbial function, ecology, and evolution.},
doi = {10.1038/nbt.3893},
journal = {Nature Biotechnology},
number = 8,
volume = 35,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 8
}
  • Here, we present two standards developed by the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) for reporting bacterial and archaeal genome sequences. Both are extensions of the Minimum Information about Any (x) Sequence (MIxS). The standards are the Minimum Information about a Single Amplified Genome (MISAG) and the Minimum Information about a MetagenomeAssembled Genome (MIMAG), including, but not limited to, assembly quality, and estimates of genome completeness and contamination. These standards can be used in combination with other GSC checklists, including the Minimum Information about a Genome Sequence (MIGS), Minimum Information about a Metagenomic Sequence (MIMS), and Minimum Information about a Marker Genemore » Sequence (MIMARKS). Community-wide adoption of MISAG and MIMAG will facilitate more robust comparative genomic analyses of bacterial and archaeal diversity.« less
  • We present two standards developed by the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) for reporting bacterial and archaeal genome sequences. Both are extensions of the Minimum Information about Any (x) Sequence (MIxS). The standards are the Minimum Information about a Single Amplified Genome (MISAG) and the Minimum Information about a Metagenome-Assembled Genome (MIMAG), including, but not limited to, assembly quality, and estimates of genome completeness and contamination. These standards can be used in combination with other GSC checklists, including the Minimum Information about a Genome Sequence (MIGS), Minimum Information about a Metagenomic Sequence (MIMS), and Minimum Information about a Marker Gene Sequencemore » (MIMARKS). Community-wide adoption of MISAG and MIMAG will facilitate more robust comparative genomic analyses of bacterial and archaeal diversity.« less
  • To supply some background, phylogenetic studies have provided detailed knowledge on the evolutionary mechanisms of genes and species in Bacteria and Archaea. However, the evolution of cellular functions, represented by metabolic pathways and biological processes, has not been systematically characterized. Many clades in the prokaryotic tree of life have now been covered by sequenced genomes in GenBank. This enables a large-scale functional phylogenomics study of many computationally inferred cellular functions across all sequenced prokaryotes. Our results show a total of 14,727 GenBank prokaryotic genomes were re-annotated using a new protein family database, UniFam, to obtain consistent functional annotations for accuratemore » comparison. The functional profile of a genome was represented by the biological process Gene Ontology (GO) terms in its annotation. The GO term enrichment analysis differentiated the functional profiles between selected archaeal taxa. 706 prokaryotic metabolic pathways were inferred from these genomes using Pathway Tools and MetaCyc. The consistency between the distribution of metabolic pathways in the genomes and the phylogenetic tree of the genomes was measured using parsimony scores and retention indices. The ancestral functional profiles at the internal nodes of the phylogenetic tree were reconstructed to track the gains and losses of metabolic pathways in evolutionary history. In conclusion, our functional phylogenomics analysis shows divergent functional profiles of taxa and clades. Such function-phylogeny correlation stems from a set of clade-specific cellular functions with low parsimony scores. On the other hand, many cellular functions are sparsely dispersed across many clades with high parsimony scores. These different types of cellular functions have distinct evolutionary patterns reconstructed from the prokaryotic tree.« less
  • Here we present a standard developed by the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) for reporting marker gene sequences - the minimum information about a marker gene sequence (MIMARKS). We also introduce a system for describing the environment from which a biological sample originates. The 'environmental packages' apply to any genome sequence of known origin and can be used in combination with MIMARKS and other GSC checklists. Finally, to establish a unified standard for describing sequence data and to provide a single point of entry for the scientific community to access and learn about GSC checklists, we present the minimum information aboutmore » any (x) sequence (MIxS). Adoption of MIxS will enhance our ability to analyze natural genetic diversity documented by massive DNA sequencing efforts from myriad ecosystems in our ever-changing biosphere.« less