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Title: Plant-microbe genomic systems optimization for energy

Abstract

The overall objective of this project was to identify genetic variation within grasses that results in increased biomass yield and biofuel conversion efficiency. Improving energy crops hinges on identifying the genetic mechanisms underlying traits that benefit energy production. The exploitation of natural variation in plant species is an ideal approach to identify both the traits and the genes of interest in the production of biofuels. The specific goals of this project were to (1) quantify relevant genetic diversity for biofuel feedstock bioconversion efficiency and biomass accumulation, (2) identify genetic loci that control these traits, and (3) characterize genes for improved energy crop systems. Determining the key genetic contributors influencing biofuel traits is required in order to determine the viability of these traits as targets for improvement; only then will we be able to apply modern breeding practices and genetic engineering for the rapid improvement of feedstocks.

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
OSTI Identifier:
1414269
Report Number(s):
DE-SC0006641
DOE Contract Number:
SC0006641
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
09 BIOMASS FUELS

Citation Formats

Hazen, Samuel P. Plant-microbe genomic systems optimization for energy. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1414269.
Hazen, Samuel P. Plant-microbe genomic systems optimization for energy. United States. doi:10.2172/1414269.
Hazen, Samuel P. Wed . "Plant-microbe genomic systems optimization for energy". United States. doi:10.2172/1414269. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1414269.
@article{osti_1414269,
title = {Plant-microbe genomic systems optimization for energy},
author = {Hazen, Samuel P.},
abstractNote = {The overall objective of this project was to identify genetic variation within grasses that results in increased biomass yield and biofuel conversion efficiency. Improving energy crops hinges on identifying the genetic mechanisms underlying traits that benefit energy production. The exploitation of natural variation in plant species is an ideal approach to identify both the traits and the genes of interest in the production of biofuels. The specific goals of this project were to (1) quantify relevant genetic diversity for biofuel feedstock bioconversion efficiency and biomass accumulation, (2) identify genetic loci that control these traits, and (3) characterize genes for improved energy crop systems. Determining the key genetic contributors influencing biofuel traits is required in order to determine the viability of these traits as targets for improvement; only then will we be able to apply modern breeding practices and genetic engineering for the rapid improvement of feedstocks.},
doi = {10.2172/1414269},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Dec 20 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Dec 20 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Technical Report:

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  • The most important accomplishment was the discovery that oligosaccharides derived from plant cell wall polysaccharides are biolgically active, that is, they possess a regulatory role in plants. The connection between biologically active carbohydrates and plant cell walls came with the discovery that bacteria elicit the accumulation of phytoalexins in plant tissues by injuring plant cells and, in doing so, cause the release of a fragment of a plant cell wall polysaccharide that elicits the synthesis of phytoalexins. The second biologically active carbohydrate found in plant cell walls was also found to be a pectic polysaccharide. In this case, the carbohydratemore » is a regulatory molecule that induces the de novo synthesis of proteins possessing the ability to inhibit proteinases of insects and bacteria. Naturally occurring carbohydrates with biological regulatory functions are called oligosaccharins. It appears that the endogenous elicitor and the proteinase inhibitor-inducing factor are just two examples of a variety of oligosaccharins with diverse functions are known including a nonasaccharide fragment that inhibits elongation of pea-stem segments, an oligosaccharin capable of inhibiting completely the flowering of Lemna, and oligosaccharin involved in the hypersensitive resistance response of plants to incompatible races of pathogens. Evidence for several other oligosaccharins has been obtained. (ERB)« less
  • Studies included: (1) advances in the ability to structurally characterize complex carbohydrates; (2) the structural characterization of cell wall polysaccharides; (3) the structural analysis of polysaccharides secreted by rhizobia; (4) the characterization of the hepta-..beta..-glucoside elicitor of phytoalexins; (5) characterization of oligosaccharins; (6) new assays for oligosaccharins and oligosaccharia-releasing enzymes; (7) characterization of the enzymes produced by the pathogen Pyricularia to degrade its host's cell walls; and (8) isolation of strains of Pyriculeria. (ACR)
  • The myriad of human activities including strategic and energy development at various DOE installations have resulted in the contamination of soils and waterways that can seriously threaten human and ecosystem health. Development of efficacious and economical remediation technologies is needed to ameliorate these immensely costly problems. Bioremediation (both plant and microbe-based) has promising potential to meet this demand but still requires advances in fundamental knowledge. For bioremediation of heavy metals, the three-way interaction of plant root, microbial community, and soil organic matter (SOM)1 in the rhizosphere is critically important for long-term sustainability but often underconsidered. Particularly urgent is the needmore » to understand processes that lead to metal ion stabilization in soils, which is crucial to all of the goals of bioremediation: removal, stabilization, and transformation. This project will build on the knowledge that we have generated on the role of root exudation and metabolism for metal mobilization and accumulation, to address the following objectives: (1) Identify molecular markers and characterize the chemical nature of recalcitrant SOM pools that are involved in belowground metal ion interactions, which are likely to be markers for sustainable sequestration; (2) Utilize (1) to determine plant and microbial factors that contribute to sustainable metal sequestration or mobility, as well as bioavailability; (3) Utilize information from (1) and (2) to explore efficacious means for enhancing sustainable phytostabilization of heavy metals in the subsurface zone.« less
  • The myriad of human activities including strategic and energy development at various DOE installations have resulted in the contamination of soils and waterways that can seriously threaten human and ecosystem health. Development of efficacious and economical remediation technologies is needed to ameliorate these immensely costly problems. Bioremediation (both plant and microbe-based) has promising potential to meet this demand but still requires advances in fundamental knowledge. For bioremediation of heavy metals, the three-way interaction of plant root, microbial community, and soil organic matter (SOM)1 in the rhizosphere is critically important for long-term sustainability but often underconsidered. Particularly urgent is the needmore » to understand processes that lead to metal ion stabilization in soils, which is crucial to all of the goals of bioremediation: removal, stabilization, and transformation. This project will build on the knowledge that we have generated on the role of root exudation and metabolism for metal mobilization and accumulation, to address the following objectives: (1) Identify molecular markers and characterize the chemical nature of recalcitrant SOM pools that are involved in below ground metal ion interactions, which are likely to be markers for sustainable sequestration; (2) Utilize (1) to determine plant and microbial factors that contribute to sustainable metal sequestration or mobility, as well as bioavailability; (3) Utilize information from (1) and (2) to explore efficacious means for enhancing sustainable phytostabilization of heavy metals in the subsurface zone.« less
  • For stabilization of heavy metals at contaminated sites, the three way interaction among soil organic matter (OM)-microbes-plants, and their effect on heavy metal binding is critically important for long-term sustainability, a factor that is poorly understood at the molecular level. Using a soil aging system, the humification of plant matter such as wheat straw was probed along with the effect on microbial community on soil from the former McClellan Air Force Base.