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Title: Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of loblolly pine using a continuous, reactive twin-screw extruder

Authors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1414010
Grant/Contract Number:
FE0005349
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Energy Conversion and Management
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 134; Journal Issue: C; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2017-12-19 04:40:13; Journal ID: ISSN 0196-8904
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United Kingdom
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Hoekman, S. Kent, Broch, Amber, Felix, Larry, and Farthing, William. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of loblolly pine using a continuous, reactive twin-screw extruder. United Kingdom: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2016.12.035.
Hoekman, S. Kent, Broch, Amber, Felix, Larry, & Farthing, William. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of loblolly pine using a continuous, reactive twin-screw extruder. United Kingdom. doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2016.12.035.
Hoekman, S. Kent, Broch, Amber, Felix, Larry, and Farthing, William. Wed . "Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of loblolly pine using a continuous, reactive twin-screw extruder". United Kingdom. doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2016.12.035.
@article{osti_1414010,
title = {Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of loblolly pine using a continuous, reactive twin-screw extruder},
author = {Hoekman, S. Kent and Broch, Amber and Felix, Larry and Farthing, William},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1016/j.enconman.2016.12.035},
journal = {Energy Conversion and Management},
number = C,
volume = 134,
place = {United Kingdom},
year = {Wed Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1016/j.enconman.2016.12.035

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 5works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

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  • Plastics, starting from inexpensive mass-produced articles to technical high-end applications, are being used in ever more areas of life. The main drivers are their flexible product properties and the resultant broad application possibilities. To be able to offer plastic products inexpensively and conserve the environment at the same time, more and more attention is being paid to plastics recycling. Polyethylene terephthalate – in short PET – is of particular significance here because of its frequent application in the film and packaging industry and its special material properties. The recycling of PET, however, can only be carried out a limited numbermore » of times because it’s processing necessarily results in both thermal and mechanical stresses on the material. This is the basis for the reactions at molecular level, which result in a shortening of the molecule chains (material degradation) and exert a negative effect on the product properties. The aim of this study is to identify the factors that influence the material degradation of PET in twin-screw extrusion. To do this, various screw configurations and different speed and throughput conditions are examined in a series of experiments. Furthermore, material specimens are removed along the length of the screw in order to evaluate the influence of individual screw sections. By determining the intrinsic viscosity of the specimens, it is possible to measure the mean molecular weight and thus the material damage. Based on the test results, guidelines are drawn up for the compounding of PET so as to ensure as little damage as possible to the material.« less
  • This study aims to reveal the structural features and reaction pathways for solid–liquid products from hydrothermal carbonization of Loblolly pine, where the solid products can be used as catalysts, adsorbents and electrode materials while liquid products can be treated yielding fuels and platform chemicals. Results revealed when treated at 240 °C, cellulose and hemicellulose were degraded, in part, to 5-hydroxy-methyl furfural and furfural which were further transformed to aromatic structures via ring opening and Diels Alder reactions. Lignin degradation and formation of carbon–carbon bonds, forming aromatic motifs in the presence of furanic compounds connected via aliphatic bridges, ether or condensationmore » reactions. After hydrothermal treatment, condensed aromatic carbon materials with methoxy groups were recovered with high fixed carbon content and HHV. As a result, the recovered liquid products are lignin-like value-added chemicals consisting of furfural and polyaromatic structure with alkanes and carboxyl, their total hydroxyl group content decreased when increasing reaction time.« less
  • A 14-year-old stand on wet, poorly drained soil in Louisiana was thinned using this small tracked harvester that fells, delimbs, bucks and bunches trees individually. Results gave a 73% utilization rate and an hourly output of 46 trees or 88 cubic feet. 4 references.
  • The dynamics of rapid changes in carbon (C) partitioning within forest ecosystems are not well understood, which limits improvement of mechanistic models of C cycling. Our objective was to inform model processes by describing relationships between C partitioning and accessible environmental or physiological measurements, with a special emphasis on short-term C flux through a forest ecosystem. We exposed eight 7-year-old loblolly pine ( Pinus taeda L.) trees to air enriched with 13CO 2 and then implemented adjacent light shade (LS) and heavy shade (HS) treatments in order to manipulate C uptake and flux. The impacts of shading on photosynthesis, plantmore » water potential, sap flow, basal area growth, root growth, and soil CO 2 efflux rate (CER) were assessed for each tree over a three-week period. The progression of the 13C label was concurrently tracked from the atmosphere through foliage, phloem, roots, and surface soil CO 2 efflux. The HS treatment significantly reduced C uptake, sap flow, stem growth and fine root standing crop, and resulted in greater residual soil water content to 1 m depth. Sap flow was strongly correlated with CER on the previous day, but not the current day, with no apparent treatment effect on the relationship. Although there were apparent reductions in new C flux belowground, the heavy shade treatment did not noticeably reduce the magnitude of belowground autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration based on surface soil CO 2 efflux rate (CER), which was overwhelmingly driven by soil temperature and moisture. The 13C label was immediately detected in foliage on label day (half-life = 0.5 d), progressed through phloem by day 2 (half-life = 4.7 d), roots by day 2-4, and subsequently was evident as respiratory release from soil which peaked between days 3-6. The δ 13C of soil CO 2 efflux was strongly correlated with phloem 13C on the previous day, or two days earlier. While the 13C label was readily tracked through the ecosystem, the fate of root C through respiratory, mycorrhizal or exudative release pathways were not assessed. Lastly, these data detail the timing and relative magnitude of C flux through various components of a young pine stand in relation to environmental conditions.« less