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Title: Water and Wastewater Annual Price Escalation Rates for Selected Cities across the United States

Abstract

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted this study for the Federal Energy Management Program to identify trends in annual water and wastewater price escalation rates across the United States. This study can be used to inform the selection of an appropriate escalation rates for inclusion in LCCA.

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Federal Energy Management Program (EE-5F) (Federal Energy Management Program Corporate)
OSTI Identifier:
1413878
Report Number(s):
DOE/EE-1670
7781
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY, AND ECONOMY; Water; waste water; escalation rate; water efficiency

Citation Formats

None, None. Water and Wastewater Annual Price Escalation Rates for Selected Cities across the United States. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1413878.
None, None. Water and Wastewater Annual Price Escalation Rates for Selected Cities across the United States. United States. doi:10.2172/1413878.
None, None. 2017. "Water and Wastewater Annual Price Escalation Rates for Selected Cities across the United States". United States. doi:10.2172/1413878. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1413878.
@article{osti_1413878,
title = {Water and Wastewater Annual Price Escalation Rates for Selected Cities across the United States},
author = {None, None},
abstractNote = {Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted this study for the Federal Energy Management Program to identify trends in annual water and wastewater price escalation rates across the United States. This study can be used to inform the selection of an appropriate escalation rates for inclusion in LCCA.},
doi = {10.2172/1413878},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month =
}

Technical Report:

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  • Information is presented on the average annual costs for representative amounts of electricity to consumers in homes utilizing electricity exclusively for all purposes. Average annual electric bills, average charges per kilowatt-hour and average kilowatt-hour consumption for these homes are shown on a nationwide basis and for each State and individual communities throughout the United States.
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  • Bench-scale and pilot plant studies at PNL have shown that powdered activated carbon is effective in improving volatile solids destruction and gas production in anaerobic digesters that are operating at less than normally expected levels of efficiency. To evaluate the applicability of this technology to digesters in the United States, digester operating characteristics at 60 facilities were surveyed and the number of stressed digesters estimated. The results show that although median values of the operating parameters conformed with those of a well-operated digester, 30% of the digesters surveyed were stressed with regard to at least one important parameter. Of themore » 30 largest treatment plants in the U.S., 7 fell into this category. Digester gas production and usage were then examined to determine the importance of methane off-gas as an energy source. A conservative estimate is that the gas produced nationally represents a heating value of about 2.36 x 10/sup 13/ Btu/year with a present value of $40 million. Of this amount, an estimated 75% is used either onsite or sold. Onsite uses include heating digesters and buildings, incinerating sludge, operating equipment, and generating electricity. The other 25% is flared and the energy value lost. The present value of the flared gas is about $10 million/year. Natural gas prices are projected to increase 150% over the next 7 years. If the present utilization ratio continues, the flared gas will be worth approximately $27 million in 1985. Presently, digester gas is mainly used for process heating and operating equipment. The technical and economic feasibility of recovering digester gas for electrical power generation, onsite equipment operation, and sales to other consumers (utilities, private companies) should be thoroughly investigated. If fuel gas recovery and utilization are found to be desirable, consideration should be given to expanding and upgrading anaerobic digester facilities in the U.S.« less
  • Bench-scale and pilot plant studies at Pacific Northwest Laboratory have shown that powdered activated carbon is effective in improving volatile solids destruction and gas production in anaerobic digesters that are operating at less than normally expected levels of efficiency. To evaluate the applicability of this technology to digesters in the United States, digester operating characteristics at 60 facilities were surveyed and the number of stressed digesters estimated. The results show that although median values of the operating parameters conformed with those of a well-operated digester, 30% of the digesters surveyed were stressed with regard to at least one important parameter.more » Of the 30 largest treatment plants in the US, seven fell into this category. Digester gas production and usage were then examined to determine the importance of methane off-gas as an energy source. A conservative estimate is that the gas produced nationally represents a heating value of about 2.36 x 10/sup 13/ Btu/year with a present value of $40 million. Of this amount, an estimated 75% is used either onsite or sold. Onsite uses include heating digesters and buildings, incinerating sludge, operating equipment, and generating electricity. The other 25% is flared and the energy value lost. The present value of the flared gas is about $10 million/year. Natural gas prices are projected to increase 150% over the next seven years. If the present utilization ratio continues, the flared gas will be worth approximately $27 million in 1985. Presently, digester gas is mainly used for process heating and operating equipment. The technical and economic feasibility of recovering digester gas for electrical power generation, onsite equipment operation, and sales to other consumers (utilities, private companies) should be thoroughly investigated.« less