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Title: Perylene Diimide as a Precise Graphene-like Superoxide Dismutase Mimetic

Abstract

Here we show that the active portion of a graphitic nanoparticle can be mimicked by a perylene diimide (PDI) to explain the otherwise elusive biological and electrocatalytic activity of the nanoparticle construct. Development of molecular analogues that mimic the antioxidant properties of oxidized graphenes, in this case the poly(ethylene glycolated) hydrophilic carbon clusters (PEG–HCCs), will afford important insights into the highly efficient activity of PEG–HCCs and their graphitic analogues. PEGylated perylene diimides (PEGn–PDI) serve as well-defined molecular analogues of PEG–HCCs and oxidized graphenes in general, and their antioxidant and superoxide dismutase-like (SOD-like) properties were studied. PEGn–PDIs have two reversible reduction peaks, which are more positive than the oxidation peak of superoxide (O2•–). This is similar to the reduction peak of the HCCs. Thus, as with PEG–HCCs, PEGn–PDIs are also strong single-electron oxidants of O2•–. Furthermore, reduced PEGn–PDI, PEGn–PDI•–, in the presence of protons, was shown to reduce O2•– to H2O2 to complete the catalytic cycle in this SOD analogue. The kinetics of the conversion of O2•– to O2 and H2O2 by PEG8–PDI was measured using freeze-trap EPR experiments to provide a turnover number of 133 s–1; the similarity in kinetics further supports that PEG8–PDI is a true SOD mimetic. Finally,more » PDIs can be used as catalysts in the electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction in water, which proceeds by a two-electron process with the production of H2O2, mimicking graphene oxide nanoparticles that are otherwise difficult to study spectroscopically.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]; ;  [2];  [1];  [3];  [1]; ORCiD logo
  1. Hematology, Internal Medicine, University of Texas Houston Medical School, Houston, Texas 77030, United States
  2. Argonne National Laboratory, X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States
  3. Department of Neurology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, United States; Center for Translational Research in Inflammatory Diseases, Michel E. DeBakey VA Medical Center, Houston, Texas 77030, United States
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
National Institutes of Health (NIH)
OSTI Identifier:
1413752
DOE Contract Number:
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: ACS Nano; Journal Volume: 11; Journal Issue: 2
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; electron paramagnetic resonance; perylene diimide; radical anion; reactive oxygen; superoxide dismutase

Citation Formats

Jalilov, Almaz S., Nilewski, Lizanne G., Berka, Vladimir, Zhang, Chenhao, Yakovenko, Andrey A., Wu, Gang, Kent, Thomas A., Tsai, Ah-Lim, and Tour, James M. Perylene Diimide as a Precise Graphene-like Superoxide Dismutase Mimetic. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1021/acsnano.6b08211.
Jalilov, Almaz S., Nilewski, Lizanne G., Berka, Vladimir, Zhang, Chenhao, Yakovenko, Andrey A., Wu, Gang, Kent, Thomas A., Tsai, Ah-Lim, & Tour, James M. Perylene Diimide as a Precise Graphene-like Superoxide Dismutase Mimetic. United States. doi:10.1021/acsnano.6b08211.
Jalilov, Almaz S., Nilewski, Lizanne G., Berka, Vladimir, Zhang, Chenhao, Yakovenko, Andrey A., Wu, Gang, Kent, Thomas A., Tsai, Ah-Lim, and Tour, James M. Tue . "Perylene Diimide as a Precise Graphene-like Superoxide Dismutase Mimetic". United States. doi:10.1021/acsnano.6b08211.
@article{osti_1413752,
title = {Perylene Diimide as a Precise Graphene-like Superoxide Dismutase Mimetic},
author = {Jalilov, Almaz S. and Nilewski, Lizanne G. and Berka, Vladimir and Zhang, Chenhao and Yakovenko, Andrey A. and Wu, Gang and Kent, Thomas A. and Tsai, Ah-Lim and Tour, James M.},
abstractNote = {Here we show that the active portion of a graphitic nanoparticle can be mimicked by a perylene diimide (PDI) to explain the otherwise elusive biological and electrocatalytic activity of the nanoparticle construct. Development of molecular analogues that mimic the antioxidant properties of oxidized graphenes, in this case the poly(ethylene glycolated) hydrophilic carbon clusters (PEG–HCCs), will afford important insights into the highly efficient activity of PEG–HCCs and their graphitic analogues. PEGylated perylene diimides (PEGn–PDI) serve as well-defined molecular analogues of PEG–HCCs and oxidized graphenes in general, and their antioxidant and superoxide dismutase-like (SOD-like) properties were studied. PEGn–PDIs have two reversible reduction peaks, which are more positive than the oxidation peak of superoxide (O2•–). This is similar to the reduction peak of the HCCs. Thus, as with PEG–HCCs, PEGn–PDIs are also strong single-electron oxidants of O2•–. Furthermore, reduced PEGn–PDI, PEGn–PDI•–, in the presence of protons, was shown to reduce O2•– to H2O2 to complete the catalytic cycle in this SOD analogue. The kinetics of the conversion of O2•– to O2 and H2O2 by PEG8–PDI was measured using freeze-trap EPR experiments to provide a turnover number of 133 s–1; the similarity in kinetics further supports that PEG8–PDI is a true SOD mimetic. Finally, PDIs can be used as catalysts in the electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction in water, which proceeds by a two-electron process with the production of H2O2, mimicking graphene oxide nanoparticles that are otherwise difficult to study spectroscopically.},
doi = {10.1021/acsnano.6b08211},
journal = {ACS Nano},
number = 2,
volume = 11,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Jan 31 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Tue Jan 31 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}
  • Dissociation constants of cytokinins, derivatives of purine which form complexes which cupric ion, were determined by spectrophotometry and the stability constants of their copper complexes by pH titration. The values found for kinetic were 3.76, 9.96, 7.8, and 15.3 for pK/sub 1/ for pK/sub 2/, logk/sub 1/, and log..beta../sub 2/, respectively, and those for 6-benzylaminopurine were, in the same order, 3.90, 9.84, 8.3, and 15.9. The copper(II) complexes with kinetin and 6-benzylaminopurine had superoxide dismutase mimetic activity, and the reaction rate constants with superoxide, which were determined by polarography. were 2.3 x 10/sup 7/ M/sup -1/s/sup -1/ for kinetin andmore » 1.5 x 10/sup 7/ M/sup -1/s/sup -1/ for 6-benzylaminopurine at pH 9.8 and 25/sup 0/C.« less
  • Purpose: To determine the effect of the superoxide dismutase mimetic Mn(III) tetrakis(N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin (MnTE-2-PyP{sup 5+}) on tumor radioresponsiveness. Methods and Materials: Various rodent tumor (4T1, R3230, B16) and endothelial (SVEC) cell lines were exposed to MnTE-2-PyP{sup 5+} and assayed for viability and radiosensitivity in vitro. Next, tumors were treated with radiation and MnTE-2-PyP{sup 5+} in vivo, and the effects on tumor growth and vascularity were monitored. Results: In vitro, MnTE-2-PyP{sup 5+} was not significantly cytotoxic. However, at concentrations as low as 2 {mu}mol/L it caused 100% inhibition of secretion by tumor cells of cytokines protective of irradiated endothelial cells. In vivo,more » combined treatment with radiation and MnTE-2-PyP{sup 5+} achieved synergistic tumor devascularization, reducing vascular density by 78.7% within 72 h of radiotherapy (p < 0.05 vs. radiation or drug alone). Co-treatment of tumors also resulted in synergistic antitumor effects, extending tumor growth delay by 9 days (p < 0.01). Conclusions: These studies support the conclusion that MnTE-2-PyP{sup 5+}, which has been shown to protect normal tissues from radiation injury, can also improve tumor control through augmenting radiation-induced damage to the tumor vasculature.« less
  • Purpose: To identify temporal changes in protein expression in the irradiated rat lung and generate putative mechanisms underlying the radioprotective effect of the manganese superoxide dismutase mimetic MnTE-2-PyP{sup 5+}. Methods and Materials: Female Fischer 344 rats were irradiated to the right hemithorax with a single dose of 28 Gy and killed from day 1 to 20 weeks after irradiation. Proteomic profiling was performed to identify proteins that underwent significant changes in abundance. Some irradiated rats were administered MnTE-2-PyP{sup 5+} and changes in protein expression and phosphorylation determined at 6 weeks after irradiation. Results: Radiation induced a biphasic stress response inmore » the lung, as shown by the induction of heme oxygenase 1 at 1-3 days and at 6-8 weeks after irradiation. At 6-8 weeks after irradiation, the down-regulation of proteins involved in cytoskeletal architecture (filamin A and talin), antioxidant defense (biliverdin reductase and peroxiredoxin II), and cell signaling ({beta}-catenin, annexin II, and Rho-guanosine diphosphate dissociation inhibitor) was observed. Treatment with MnTE-2-PyP{sup 5+} partially prevented the apparent degradation of filamin and talin, reduced the level of cleaved caspases 3 and 9, and promoted Akt phosphorylation as well as {beta}-catenin expression. Conclusion: A significant down-regulation of proteins and an increase in protein markers of apoptosis were observed at the onset of lung injury in the irradiated rat lung. Treatment with MnTE-2-PyP{sup 5+}, which has been demonstrated to reduce lung injury from radiation, reduced apparent protein degradation and apoptosis indicators, suggesting that preservation of lung structural integrity and prevention of cell loss may underlie the radioprotective effect of this compound.« less
  • Purpose: To test the effects of a novel Mn porphyrin oxidative stress modifier, Mn(III) meso-tetrakis(N-n-butoxyethylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin (MnBuOE), for its radioprotective and radiosensitizing properties in normal tissue versus tumor, respectively. Methods and Materials: Murine oral mucosa and salivary glands were treated with a range of radiation doses with or without MnBuOE to establish the dose–effect curves for mucositis and xerostomia. Radiation injury was quantified by intravital near-infrared imaging of cathepsin activity, assessment of salivation, and histologic analysis. To evaluate effects of MnBuOE on the tumor radiation response, we administered the drug as an adjuvant to fractionated radiation of FaDu xenografts. Again, a range of radiationmore » therapy (RT) doses was administered to establish the radiation dose–effect curve. The 50% tumor control dose values with or without MnBuOE and dose-modifying factor were determined. Results: MnBuOE protected normal tissue by reducing RT-mediated mucositis, xerostomia, and fibrosis. The dose-modifying factor for protection against xerostomia was 0.77. In contrast, MnBuOE increased tumor local control rates compared with controls. The dose-modifying factor, based on the ratio of 50% tumor control dose values, was 1.3. Immunohistochemistry showed that MnBuOE-treated tumors exhibited a significant influx of M1 tumor-associated macrophages, which provides mechanistic insight into its radiosensitizing effects in tumors. Conclusions: MnBuOE widens the therapeutic margin by decreasing the dose of radiation required to control tumor, while increasing normal tissue resistance to RT-mediated injury. This is the first study to quantitatively demonstrate the magnitude of a single drug's ability to radioprotect normal tissue while radiosensitizing tumor.« less