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Title: High-Yield Production of Fatty Nitriles by One-Step Vapor-Phase Thermocatalysis of Triglycerides

Authors:
;  [1]; ORCiD logo;  [2]; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo
  1. Department of Chemistry, University of California Riverside, Riverside, California 92521, United States
  2. Department of Chemical Engineering, Manhattan College, 3825 Corlear Avenue-Leo 422, Riverdale, New York 10463, United States
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Bioenergy Technologies Office (EE-3B)
OSTI Identifier:
1413552
Grant/Contract Number:
EE0005993
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
ACS Omega
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 2; Journal Issue: 12; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2017-12-15 09:11:12; Journal ID: ISSN 2470-1343
Publisher:
American Chemical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Shirazi, Yaser, Tafazolian, Hosein, Viamajala, Sridhar, Varanasi, Sasidhar, Song, Zhaoning, and Heben, Michael J. High-Yield Production of Fatty Nitriles by One-Step Vapor-Phase Thermocatalysis of Triglycerides. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1021/acsomega.7b01502.
Shirazi, Yaser, Tafazolian, Hosein, Viamajala, Sridhar, Varanasi, Sasidhar, Song, Zhaoning, & Heben, Michael J. High-Yield Production of Fatty Nitriles by One-Step Vapor-Phase Thermocatalysis of Triglycerides. United States. doi:10.1021/acsomega.7b01502.
Shirazi, Yaser, Tafazolian, Hosein, Viamajala, Sridhar, Varanasi, Sasidhar, Song, Zhaoning, and Heben, Michael J. 2017. "High-Yield Production of Fatty Nitriles by One-Step Vapor-Phase Thermocatalysis of Triglycerides". United States. doi:10.1021/acsomega.7b01502.
@article{osti_1413552,
title = {High-Yield Production of Fatty Nitriles by One-Step Vapor-Phase Thermocatalysis of Triglycerides},
author = {Shirazi, Yaser and Tafazolian, Hosein and Viamajala, Sridhar and Varanasi, Sasidhar and Song, Zhaoning and Heben, Michael J.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1021/acsomega.7b01502},
journal = {ACS Omega},
number = 12,
volume = 2,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month =
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1021/acsomega.7b01502

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  • Microbial production of fats and oils is being developedas a means of converting biomass to biofuels. Here we investigate enhancing expression of enzymes involved in the production of fatty acids and triglycerides as a means to increase production of these compounds in Aspergillusoryzae. Examination of the A.oryzaegenome demonstrates that it contains twofatty acid synthases and several other genes that are predicted to be part of this biosynthetic pathway. We enhancedthe expressionof fatty acid synthesis-related genes by replacing their promoters with thepromoter fromthe constitutively highly expressedgene tef1. We demonstrate that by simply increasing the expression of the fatty acid synthasegenes wemore » successfullyincreasedtheproduction of fatty acids and triglyceridesby more than two fold. Enhancement of expression of the fatty acid pathway genes ATP-citrate lyase and palmitoyl-ACP thioesteraseincreasedproductivity to a lesser extent.Increasing expression ofacetyl-CoA carboxylase caused no detectable change in fatty acid levels. Increases in message level for each gene were monitored usingquantitative real-time RT-PCR. Our data demonstrates that a simple increase in the abundance of fatty acid synthase genes can increase the detectable amount of fatty acids.« less
  • Serum triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and total cholesterol were determined during one hour immobilization stress in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats after ethanol administration (2g/kg, i.p.). Stress and ethanol effects were evaluated in two experiments: (1) rats maintained on Purina Rodent Chow for six weeks and fasted for 24 hours; and (2) rats maintained on the same diet supplemented with 1% cholesterol and 10% peanut oil for six weeks and nonfasted prior to experimentation. Blood was obtained from indwelling jugular catheters. In each experiment, differences were seen in triglyceride and NEFA levels but not in total cholesterol. In the regularmore » diet-fed rats (1), serum triglyceride levels were not affected by either stress or ethanol. However, NEFA levels did show differences in the response to ethanol and stress. A 63% decrease from baseline after 5{prime} of stress was partially abolished by ethanol; instead, a 24% increase was observed. Also, a stress-induced increase in NEFA which occurred after 15{prime} was not observed in the ethanol treated rats; rather, a decrease in NEFA was noted. Total cholesterol did not change in response to stress or ethanol. In the high cholesterol diet-fed rats (2), ethanol did not suppress a stress-induced increase in triglyceride levels. NEFA levels in ethanol-treated rats were higher during the first 15{prime} of stress as compared to stress alone. A decrease in NEFA was however seen in the ethanol-treated rats after 30{prime} of stress and these levels remained lower than the stress alone group. A diet-induced increase in total cholesterol levels was observed; however, no changes were seen due to either or ethanol. Thus, ethanol administration prior to acute immobilization stress did affect serum triglyceride and NEFA levels but did not change total cholesterol.« less
  • A method for selectively determining both free fatty acids (FFA) and triacylglycerides (TAGs) in biological oils was investigated and optimized using gas chromatography after esterification of the target species to their corresponding fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). The method used acid catalyzed esterification in methanolic solutions under conditions of varying severity to achieve complete conversion of more reactive FFAs while preserving the concentration of TAGs. Complete conversion of both free acids and glycerides to corresponding FAMEs was found to require more rigorous reaction conditions involving heating to 120°C for up to 2 h. Method validation was provided using gas chromatography–flamemore » ionization detection, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. The method improves on existing methods because it allows the total esterified lipid to be broken down by FAMEs contributed by FFA compared to FAMEs from both FFA and TAGs. Single and mixed-component solutions of pure fatty acids and triglycerides, as well as a sesame oil sample to simulate a complex biological oil, were used to optimize the methodologies. Key parameters that were investigated included: HCl-to-oil ratio, temperature and reaction time. Pure free fatty acids were found to esterify under reasonably mild conditions (10 min at 50°C with a 2.1:1 HCl to fatty acid ratio) with 97.6 ± 2.3% recovery as FAMEs, while triglycerides were largely unaffected under these reaction conditions. The optimized protocol demonstrated that it is possible to use esterification reactions to selectively determine the free acid content, total lipid content, and hence, glyceride content in biological oils. This protocol also allows gas chromatography analysis of FAMEs as a more ideal analyte than glyceride species in their native state.« less
  • Methionine hydroxy analog has been proposed to stimulate hepatic lipoprotein synthesis and incorporation of plasma fatty acids into plasma triglyceride. Seven cows were fed diets containing 0 to 30 g analog/d starting 14 d prepartum. At approximately 30 and 60 d postpartum, cows were continuously infused intravenously with 1-({sup 14}C)palmitic acid for 160 min to achieve steady-state labeling of plasma fatty acid and triglyceride. Turnover of fatty acid and transfer quotients for triglyceride and CO{sub 2} were 3.3 an 2.7 mmol min{sup {minus}1}; 13.0 and 10.0%; and 8.0 and 5.0%, for control and analog, respectively. Proportion of fatty acid turnovermore » incorporated into triglyceride and CO{sub 2} were 14.0 and 15.0%; and 21.0 and 18.0, respectively, for control and analog. Analog increased {sup 14}C recovered in milk fat (52 vs. 36%). Plasma concentration of fatty acids, percent oxidized to CO{sub 2}, and percent of CO{sub 2} from fatty acids decreased with increasing lactation days. Milk fat percent and yield fatty acid turnover, and oxidation were positively correlated with concentration of plasma fatty acids, whereas fatty acid incorporated into plasma triglyceride was negatively correlated with fatty acid concentration. The data suggest that hepatic triglyceride secretion is not increased in early lactation; further, no effects of analog on lipid metabolism were detected.« less
  • While nicotine replacement therapy is assumed to be a safer alternative to smoking during pregnancy, the long-term consequences for the offspring remain elusive. Animal studies now suggest that maternal nicotine exposure during perinatal life leads to a wide range of adverse outcomes for the offspring including increased adiposity. The focus of this study was to investigate if nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation leads to alterations in hepatic triglyceride synthesis. Female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to receive daily subcutaneous injections of saline (vehicle) or nicotine bitartrate (1 mg/kg/day) for two weeks prior to mating until weaning. At postnatal daymore » 180 (PND 180), nicotine exposed offspring exhibited significantly elevated levels of circulating and hepatic triglycerides in the male offspring. This was concomitant with increased expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS), the critical hepatic enzyme in de novo triglyceride synthesis. Given that FAS is regulated by the nuclear receptor Liver X receptor (LXRα), we measured LXRα expression in both control and nicotine-exposed offspring. Nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation led to an increase in hepatic LXRα protein expression and enriched binding to the putative LXRE element on the FAS promoter in PND 180 male offspring. This was also associated with significantly enhanced acetylation of histone H3 [K9,14] surrounding the FAS promoter, a hallmark of chromatin activation. Collectively, these findings suggest that nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation leads to an increase in circulating and hepatic triglycerides long-term via changes in the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of the hepatic lipogenic pathway. - Highlights: • Our data reveals the links nicotine exposure in utero and long-term hypertriglyceridemia. • It is due to nicotine-induced augmented expression of hepatic FAS and LXRα activity. • Moreover, this involves nicotine-induced enhanced acetylation of histone H3 [K9,14]. • This provides a mechanism for developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD)« less